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- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:41:30.000Z
The NASA application requires a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic material when access is limited to one side of the material. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing and build a new, practical, potentially portable, battery operated, self-contained Compton x-ray backscatter 3D imaging system by using a specially designed automated rotationally movable x-ray source, a 2D x-ray detector with a highly collimator system and the development of a suitable 3D processing computer model. In the proposed x-ray imaging system, the primary technical advance will be to extend methods that normally supply a 2D projected image through a sheet of material, to a 3D image with more complicated features at different depths, such as voids, cracks, corrosion or delaminations. The portability of the proposed imaging system will allow bringing it to the object to be imaged. Phase 2 will be conducted with a focus on technology transition and an understanding of what it will take to demonstrate and qualify the proposed method in a prototype for use in an actual imaging system and a realistic environment. Also in Phase II, time reduction in setup, data image acquisition, and 3D-image reconstruction analysis will be realized by remote automated control of the operation and movement of a brighter x-ray source and a state-of-the-art digital flat panel detector in conjunction with a highly collimator system.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:24:49.000Z
To meet the design challenges of tomorrow, NASA and industry require advancements in the state-of-the-art for physics-based design and analysis frameworks. In particular, NASA needs the ability to make more use of physics-based models earlier in the design process. This will allow engineers to more accurately capture the complex coupling between engineering disciplines and to more accurately simulate the complex behavior of novel design configurations. Key technical barriers include long execution times, model and data complexity, and geometry management. In the Phase II project, Phoenix Integration will expand on the successful Phase I prototypes to develop new technologies and user interfaces that will help overcome these barriers. This project will focus on (1) the development of a flexible capability for implementing Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) strategies (such as multi-fidelity) in ModelCenter, (2) the creation of a flexible geometry visualization and monitoring capability for high-fidelity system models, and (3) the extension of Phoenix Integration's "Plug-In" infrastructure to better support a wide range of high-fidelity analysis and geometry management tools (CAD/CAE tools, meshing tools, mesh morphing tools). These technologies will combine with other NASA funded technologies to create a robust physics-based design and analysis framework for designing next generation air vehicles.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:08:14.000Z
While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to maintain a stable temperature as the air (sink) temperature swings from as cold as -90<SUP>o</SUP>C to as hot as +40<SUP>o</SUP>C. Currently, constant conductance, copper-methanol heat pipes are utilized on balloon payloads to remove the waste heat. It would be desirable to use a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) instead, to allow the thermal resistance to increase under cold operating or cold survival environment conditions, keeping the instrument section warm. In spacecraft, thermal management is achieved using axially-grooved aluminum-ammonia heat pipes and VCHPs, which are relatively expensive to manufacture and validate. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) is proposing a low-cost VCHP based on smooth-bore, thin-wall stainless steel tubing, with either methanol or pentane as working fluids, that is capable of passively maintaining a relatively constant evaporator (payload) temperature while the sink temperature varies between -90<SUP>o</SUP>C and +40<SUP>o</SUP>C. The thin wall will be much lighter and will provide much better temperature control due to its higher thermal resistance, while the combination of working fluid and envelope material result in a heat pipe that is much less expensive to manufacture than standard grooved aluminum heat pipes. Spacecraft VCHPs normally have the gas reservoir at the end of the condenser, and maintain its temperature with electrical heaters. The proposed VCHP moves the reservoir near the evaporator, eliminating the need for electrical power to control the temperature. Preliminary calculations show that either system, methanol based or pentane based, is capable of meeting the thermal performance requirements. For both the pentane and methanol systems, the evaporator (payload) temperature varies less than 6<SUP>o</SUP>C while the heat sink temperature varies from 90<SUP>o</SUP>C to +40<SUP>o</SUP>C.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T08:53:14.000Z
The primary objective of algorithm 3A25 is to compute various rainfall statistics over a month from the level 2 PR products. The statistics are derived at two spatial resolutions: (1) a standard space scale of 5 degrees by 5 degrees (latitude x longitude) cells and (2) a high resolution subset of 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree cells. The output variables include rainfall rate (mm/hour) profile at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 15 km, fractional rain, snow ice layer, and surface rain rate (mm/hour). The output statistics include probabilities of occurrence, means and standard deviations, histograms, and correlation coefficients. All statistics in 3A-25, except near-surface rain rate, are computed only when rain is judged in 1C-21 to be "certain." When rain is judged in 1C-21 to be "possible," the observation is treated as a "no-rain" observation. For the near-surface rain rate, the statistics (mean, standard deviation, and histogram) are computed for "rain-possible" as for the usual "rain-certain." Because the "rain-possible" cases are dominated by noise so that the probability of false-alarm is high, the "rain-certain" statistics should be considered as more representative of the TRMM radar data. Three types of rain rates are defined in 3A-25: (1) a "near-surface" rain rate that is obtained from the range bin closest to the surface which is not corrupted by the surface clutter, (2) a path-averaged rain rate calculated by summing the values from the storm top (first gate where rain is detected) to the last gate (gate nearest to the surface uncontaminated by surface clutter) and dividing by the number of gates in the interval, and (3) those at fixed heights above the ellipsoid (2, 4, 6, 10, and 15 km). Spatial coverage is between 40 degrees North and 40 degrees South, owing to the 35 degree inclination of the TRMM satellite. The data are stored in the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). The low resolution grids are in the Planetary Grid 1 structure, and the high resolution grids are in the Planetary Grid 2 structure. The file size (one file per month) is about 16 MB (uncompressed). The description of file component objects can be obtained from Volume 4 - Levels 2 and 3 File Specifications provided by the TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS): "http://pps.gsfc.nasa.gov/". The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to monitor tropical and subtropical precipitation and to estimate its associated latent heating. TRMM was successfully launched on November 27, at 4:27 PM (EST) from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall distribution over both land and ocean, and defines the layer depth of the precipitation.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T09:27:36.000Z
Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership's Ask the Academy magazine past issues.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:35:35.000Z
The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded surface area p/n junction composed of indium gallium phosphide. The enhanced surface area features will be built using reactive ion etch (RIE) modified germanium substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The proposed 3-dimensional betavoltaic p/n junction will provide a cost saving of up to 90%, while increasing energy density to up to ten times that of lithium batteries. Such an advanced semiconductor device will produce much higher power outputs than are possible with existing state-of-the-art devices. It will provide the battery a life span in excess of 20 years with the broad-range temperature-insensitivity benefits normally associated with betavoltaics. This increased power/energy density for tritium betavoltaics will open up pathways for significant advances in power solutions for diminutive sized, low-power microelectronic devices that may be used in Cubesat and in-space power systems. Example applications include microwatt-to-milliwatt autonomous 20+ year sensors/microelectronics for use in structural monitoring, mesh networks, tagging and tracking wireless sensors, medical device implants, and deep space power where solar is not easily available. Tritium betavoltaics are capable of addressing this power niche for devices requiring reliable, uninterrupted power through extremes of temperature, longevity and diminutive form factors where traditional batteries cannot operate.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:10:11.000Z
During a proposed Phase I and Phase II program, PSI will advance the TRL from 3 to 6 for the ripstop reinforcement of thin film membranes used for large deployable multi-layer structures in support of sunshades for passive thermal control and planet finding external occulters. The nanofiber based ripstop reinforcement will enhance membrane tear resistance providing protection against membrane damage during deployment or after micro-meteorite impact.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T09:16:09.000Z
Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or edited by NSIDC. Thus, support for this data set may be limited. This data set contains Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Level-3 daily measurements of surface soil moisture and vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information, as well as brightness temperatures and quality control variables. Ancillary data include time, geolocation, and quality assessment. Input brightness temperature data, corresponding to a 56 km mean spatial resolution, are resampled to a global cylindrical 25 km Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) cell spacing. Data have been spatially subsetted to the SMEX03 study areas in Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA and Brazil. The study period covers 1 April to 31 August 2003 for study areas in the USA and 6 November to 31 December 2003 for the Brazil study area. Total volume for this data set is approximately 70 MB. Data are stored in HDF-EOS format and are available via FTP. These data were collected as part of a validation study for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 04 May 2002. AMSR-E validation studies linked to SMEX are designed to evaluate the accuracy of AMSR-E soil moisture data. Specific validation objectives include assessing and refining soil moisture algorithm performance; verifying soil moisture estimation accuracy; investigating the effects of vegetation, surface temperature, topography, and soil texture on soil moisture accuracy; and determining the regions that are useful for AMSR-E soil moisture measurements.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:13:48.000Z
Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons represent a new form of balloon technology, it follows that there is much to be learned about how these balloons behave in flight. There is a need to collect data on the balloon platform itself in order to better characterize its in-flight behavior. A lightweight suite of sensors will be developed to quantify several variables affecting the balloon. The measurements will include gas temperature inside and outside of the balloon, balloon film strain and temperature, and the aging of the balloon film. Phase I will involve developing a gas temperature sensing approach, a film strain and aging sensing approach, and an alternate approach to film strain and temperature measurements. Taken as a group, the approaches to be investigated are seen as likely to offer promising solutions to those measurement challenges. They will be tested in the laboratory and in a balloon on the ground. The ultimate result of the project will be a sensor suite that allows super-pressure balloon behavior and flights to be accurately modeled.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:16:32.000Z
Deployable Space Systems (DSS), in partnership with ATK Space and EMCORE, will focus the proposed SBIR program on the optimization and design development of the most promising advanced space photovoltaic subsystem now available: EMCORE's ultra-thin 33% BOL-efficient Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) solar cell that is interconnected and integrated onto an advanced flexible blanket; specifically for implementation on the lightest solar array structural system currently in use, ATK's UltraFlex. The proposed innovative and synergistic solutions will produce a near-term, low-risk solar array system that provides breakthrough performance in terms of highest specific power (>500 W/kg BOL), light weight, scalability to large (>15 kW) wing sizes, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, compact stowage volume (>50 kW/m3 BOL), high voltage operation capability, reliability, affordability, and rapid commercial readiness. The proposed effort will focus on increasing the design fidelity (TRL) of promising IMM-integrated onto UltraFlex blanket solutions configured to meet key high-voltage SEP / deep space science mission requirements. The development of feasible ultra-lightweight integrated IMM PV UltraFlex solar array technology will enable future missions, including near-to-medium term NASA Discovery and New Frontiers-class interplanetary, planetary orbital, comet rendezvous and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) science missions as well as future Orion/CEV Lunar sortie missions.