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- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:05:27.000Z
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to monitor tropical and subtropical precipitation and to estimate its associated latent heating. TRMM was successfully launched on November 27, at 4:27 PM (EST) from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. The precipitation-relevant instruments on the TRMM satellite include the Precipitation Radar (PR), an electronically scanning radar operating at 13.8 GHz; TRMM Microwave Image (TMI), a nine-channel passive microwave radiometer; and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), a five-channel visible/infrared radiometer. The purpose of the 3B42 algorithm is to produce TRMM- and raingauge-adjusted multi-satellite precipitation rate (in mm/hr) and root-mean-square (RMS) precipitation-error estimates. The algorithm combines multiple independent precipitation estimates from the TMI, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing Systems (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and microwave-adjusted merged geo-infrared (IR). All input microwave data are intercalibrated to TRMM Combined Instrument (TCI) precipitation estimates (TRMM product 3B31); the IR estimates are computed using monthly matched microwave-IR histogram matching; then missing data in individual 3-hourly merged-microwave fields are filled with the IR estimates. After the preprocessing is complete, the 3-hourly multi-satellite fields are summed for the month and combined with the monthly accumulated Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) rain gauge analysis using inverse-error-variance weighting to form a monthly best-estimate precipitation rate, which is TRMM Product 3B43. The final step is to scale all the 3-hourly estimates for the month to sum to the monthly value (for each gridbox separately). The final 3B42 precipitation (in mm/hr) estimates have a 3-hourly temporal resolution and a 0.25�x0.25� spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is the latitude band 50�S to 50�N. Important Changes: After the initial Version 7 processing, it was discovered that AMSU data were neglected in the first retrospective processing of both the Version 7 TMPA (3B42/43) and TMPA-RT (3B40/41/42RT) data series, which created an important shortcoming in the inventory of microwave precipitation estimates used during 2000-2010. In addition, a coding error in the TMPA-RT replaced the occasional missings in product 3B42RT with zeros. Accordingly, both product series were retrospectively processed again. The main impact in both series was to improve the fine-scale patterns of precipitation during 2000-2010 (and for 3B4xRT into late 2012). Averages over progressively larger time/space scales should be progressively less affected. [This is the reason the lack of AMSU went undiscovered; the merger system copes very reasonably with missing data.] Nonetheless, users are urged to switch to the newest Version 7 data sets. The newest runs may be identified by the file names: V.7 3B42/43 suffix of "7A.HDF" for January 2000 - September 2010 V.7 3B4xRT suffix of "7R2.bin" for 1 March 2000 - 6 November 2012 It continues to be the case that the Version 7 3B42/43 is some 4% higher than the calibrating data set (2B31) over oceans, which is still under study. However, the initial conclusion is that it results from the sampling mismatch between the (very sparse) TCI and the (much denser) microwave constellation. At the large scales this offset seems to be nearly a proportional constant. TMPA Restarted with October 2014: On October 07, 2014, routine production ended for the TRMM PR precipitation estimates. Since PR is no longer available, the TMI/PR combined instrument (TCI) estimates are also no longer available. As products 3B42/3B43 use the TCI estimates as the satellite calibrator, September 2014 is the last month these products were produced in this way. In a...
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T04:48:36.000Z
The GPM Ground Validation Oklahoma Climatological Survey Mesonet MC3E data were collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in central Oklahoma during the April-June 2011 period. Collected by a network of weather stations, this dataset is composed of 15 minute and 5 minute files with one file per site per day in mts format. Data can be read as ASCII text. Multiple parameters found in this dataset include relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation and calibrated soil moisture. More information on the contents and data format can be found at http://www.mesonet.org/index.php/site/about/mdf_mts_files.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:18:38.000Z
Vescent Photonics propose to develop a chip-sized narrow linewidth (< 50 kHz), widely tunable (> 10 nm's) diode laser that will be suitable for a wide variety of NASA remote sensing missions. The proposed laser platform enables easy selection of the laser center wavelength; these lasers can be easily built for any wavelength that a diode laser gain chip exists (< 670 nm to > 2.5 microns). Since spectral features of important molecular species cover a large wavelength window this center-wavelength flexibility is advantageous. This effort will focus on lasers operating in the 1.57 and 2.0 micron CO2 band, and the 1.26 micron O2 band, such as is required for ASCENDS-type missions. Rapid wide wavelength tunability will enable scans over large portions of spectral bands, which can minimize the impact of contaminant and thermal effects on total column density measurement. These lasers will provide for very fast phase (up to 10 GHz) modulation and be built with space qualifiable components. Collaborative relationships with established aerospace companies will be exploited to facilitate insertion of this technology into NASA missions.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:35:35.000Z
The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded surface area p/n junction composed of indium gallium phosphide. The enhanced surface area features will be built using reactive ion etch (RIE) modified germanium substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The proposed 3-dimensional betavoltaic p/n junction will provide a cost saving of up to 90%, while increasing energy density to up to ten times that of lithium batteries. Such an advanced semiconductor device will produce much higher power outputs than are possible with existing state-of-the-art devices. It will provide the battery a life span in excess of 20 years with the broad-range temperature-insensitivity benefits normally associated with betavoltaics. This increased power/energy density for tritium betavoltaics will open up pathways for significant advances in power solutions for diminutive sized, low-power microelectronic devices that may be used in Cubesat and in-space power systems. Example applications include microwatt-to-milliwatt autonomous 20+ year sensors/microelectronics for use in structural monitoring, mesh networks, tagging and tracking wireless sensors, medical device implants, and deep space power where solar is not easily available. Tritium betavoltaics are capable of addressing this power niche for devices requiring reliable, uninterrupted power through extremes of temperature, longevity and diminutive form factors where traditional batteries cannot operate.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T08:27:39.000Z
The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL), developed by a research team from Wallops Flight Facility, is a fully transportable and self-contained S-band research radar that collected and operated nearly continuously during NAMMA. Data was collected 19 August through 30 September 2006, at Kawsara, Senegal. Its continuous operation provides a full volume scan every fifteen minutes. Scans may be either 270 Km long range scans or 150 Km range for most high resolution data scans. Products available include real time PPI scans of reflectivities and velocities, and near real time displays of other radar products, including RHI's, CAPPI's, and Polarimetric products. Browse imagery is available for PPI reflectivities.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:34:38.000Z
<p><strong>The project determined specific performance metrics and discrete technology development goals with which to gage proposed investments in ground propellant systems operations at SSC.&nbsp; Historical center studies/investigations were examined and surveyed on hydrogen and helium conservation and recovery. Additionally, a base analytic model of the Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank at SSC&rsquo;s E1 test facility was developed and documented using Thermal Desktop</strong>&reg;/<strong>FlowCAD</strong>&reg;<strong>.</strong><strong> <em>FloCAD</em></strong>&reg;<strong> is a </strong><em>Thermal Desktop</em>&reg;<strong> module that allows a user to develop and integrate both fluid and </strong><em>thermal</em><strong> systems within a CAD based environment.</strong></p>
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T09:15:39.000Z
This work is part of the Soil Moisture Experiment (SMEX) project. This data set provides data from various sensors on the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) station number 2031, located near Ames, Iowa, USA. The data include: hourly and daily recordings of precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity, soil moisture, and soil temperature. The station houses numerous sensors that automatically record data. Sensors include: global precipitation sensor, thermistor, thin film capacitance-type sensor, anemometer, pyranometer, pressure sensor, and a frequency-shift dielectric measuring device. Units of measurement vary, depending on the type of sensor. Data are uploaded by meteor burst telemetry to the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Data Processing Center in Portland, Oregon. The NRCS has been operating this SCAN station since 23 September 2001, but this data set covers only the time period of interest to the Soil Moisture Experiments 2002 (SMEX02) campaign, 1 June 2002 through 31 August 2002. Data are available via FTP in two text files, one for hourly data, the other for daily data. These data were collected as part of a validation study for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 04 May 2002. AMSR-E validation studies linked to SMEX are designed to evaluate the accuracy of AMSR-E soil moisture data. Specific validation objectives include assessing and refining soil moisture algorithm performance; verifying soil moisture estimation accuracy; investigating the effects of vegetation, surface temperature, topography, and soil texture on soil moisture accuracy; and determining the regions that are useful for AMSR-E soil moisture measurements.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-19T07:46:06.000Z
The Scanning Raman Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) dataset collected data during the CAMEX-3 campaign on Andros Island during the period 6 August - 20 September 1998 The SRL instrument is designed to determine the composition and vertical distribution of several atmospheric constituents, specifically water vapor and aerosols.
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:17:37.000Z
An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics. The crew will be working very closely for extended periods of time and the distance between the spacecraft and earth-bound flight surgeons will prevent real-time communication. Breakdown of morale or the psychology of crew may result in increased stress, conflict, erratic behaviors, reduced cohesion, and perhaps even rebellion. Flight surgeons have stated the need for unobtrusive monitoring to help detect if crews are having difficulties with coping with long duration spaceflight environments. NASA has tens of thousands of procedures for the space shuttle and ISS, and the new Constellation vehicles will also have thousands of procedures. These procedures, and the training in performing them, represent the models and data necessary to build a behavioral assessment tool. Currently procedures are authored in Word. Under this paradigm, developing behavioral models of crew procedure performance would require re-coding all procedures by hand. However, the Constellation program is planning to use an XML representation of procedures, which facilitates automatic translation. Nominal performance metrics can determined during training and then compared during the actual missions. Deviations between the nominal and current performance can be flagged for additional attention. Since crew members can perform upwards of hundreds of procedures a week, there will be substantial data with which to assess crew behavioral performance The long-term goal of this project is to develop a set of applied technologies that can monitor crew health and cohesiveness in an unobtrusive manner and identify potential abnormalities for feedback to astronauts and flight surgeons for further investigation. The goal of the Phase I will be to develop a set of recommendations regarding technologies and techniques to accomplish the objectives and a conceptual design of a system that implement the recommendations
- API nasa-test-0.demo.socrata.com | Last Updated 2015-07-20T05:10:57.000Z
The development of new, robust, lightweight systems for CO2 removal during EVA is a crucial need for NASA. Current activity is focused on extending mission times without increasing the size and weight of the portable life support system (PLSS). Although CO2 sorbents that can be regenerated during EVA are being studied, these system add "on back" hardware, increasing weight and complexity, and reducing reliability. A simpler approach is to use a membrane system to separate CO2 and H2O from the O2 environment, however separating CO2 from O2 is difficult with standard membranes. However, developing a low pressure liquid sorbent that reversibly absorbs CO2, could facilitate the needed separation. In the Phase I project, Reaction Systems synthesized new CO2 low vapor pressure sorbents that had good reversible CO2 absorption capacity and demonstrated high selectivity for CO2 over O2 in a supported liquid membrane tests. Therefore we demonstrated the feasibility of employing a supported liquid membrane to control CO2 in EVA. In Phase II we will improve the performance by increasing the sorbent loading, reducing its viscosity, and optimizing the membrane support. We will then design and construct a prototype, that is sized to control the metabolic CO2 generation of a single crew member.