- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:34:07.000Z
<p>Today, Solar System exploration missions are the exclusive domain of space agencies and their scientists and engineers who can muster multi-hundred-million dollar budgets. While their accomplishments are broad, highly sophisticated and literally out of this world, the high cost limits our pace of important discoveries. Interplanetary CubeSats offer an opportunity to conduct focused science investigations around the inner Solar System at a cost ten times lower than missions mounted today. In much the same way that CubeSats weighing a few pounds have dramatically increased low cost access to space experimentation in low Earth orbit, this study intends to focus development of six technologies in unison so as to enable dramatically lower cost exploration of the Solar System and our Earth's more distant environs. Using the pressure of sunlight, a gravitationally defined Interplanetary Superhighway, advanced electronics and instrumentation, and laser communications, may extend the turn-of-the-millennium CubeSat standard for nanosatellites to distances far beyond Earth's magnetic cocoon. CubeSats in low Earth orbit have enabled dozens of universities to develop and place in orbit student-led, student-designed, student-built, and student-operated satellites investigating all manner of scientifically exciting phenomena, while giving graduates of these programs a competitive edge they bring to American technology and industry. Additionally, CubeSats have enabled Government-sponsored space experimentation and technology development on an accelerated schedule for unprecedented low cost. If successful, this system study of the technologies to enable Interplanetary CubeSats will open the door to a similar revolution in access to space and new discoveries beyond Earth.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:26:09.000Z
Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing methods. The primary goal of this SBIR is to make available a new technology that will make it feasible to manufacture small diameter one-piece cooled axisymmetric scramjet combustors. The availability of the proposed technology will result in scramjet program cost savings and engine design improvements and a strong near term technology commercialization is likely. In fact, scramjet developers have expressed that there is no other known means of manufacturing some of the most desired axisymmetric combustor designs. Although Ormond, LLC currently manufactures scramjet engine panels using a novel abrasivejet machining process and software that is available nowhere else in industry, new engine developments have created the need for key technology advancements. A principal advantage of the proposed technology is that it can generate small high-aspect-ratio channels in nearly any material, and is now used to machine the complex cooling flow field patterns found in the Inconel scramjet heat exchanger circuits. There are technical and economic benefits over all of the existing manufacturing methods because it is a cold, non-chemical low-mechanical load process that has no affect on workpiece material crystal structure. Developments that will be made under this SBIR are: 1.) miniaturization of the specialized cutting head to fit in the axisymmetric combustor, 2.) development of a new numerical model and software needed to implement the process, and 3.) development of an appropriate long reach manipulator arm and control software to provide appropriate tool motion in the combustor cylinder. The Phase I program will initiate the development and demonstrate feasibility of the proposed technology.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:06:22.000Z
This proposal covers processing of raw Martian regolith to both an enriched iron ore and liberated water, and also iron ore reduction and oxygen production, metal purification and steel powder making. Our proposal uses heat re-cycling to improve the energy efficiency of both regolith-to-ore enrichment and iron ore reduction. This heat re-cycling creates a bonus, the liberation of water (formerly bound to the regolith) as liquid water and a relatively low temperature water vapor. This water can be retrieved with the addition of a small condenser unit and a water storage tank/heat sink. Iron (and other transition metal) oxides are reduced using a reducing gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide inside two multi-use vessels (MUVs, in which heat recycling is also done). The reduction makes metals, mostly iron, but also exhausts water and carbon dioxide. This exhaust is re-cycled to a water/carbon dioxide splitter that produces the hydrogen and carbon monoxide reducing gases and also oxygen. The preferred water/carbon dioxide splitter is a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) from Ceramatec (maker of the SOEC for NASA's MOXIE), and Ceramatec has asked to be included in the proposal with a budget placeholder as a supplier. Metal purification and steel powder making is done using carbonyl metallurgy techniques developed by BASF with a possible variation to replace steel powder making with metal vapor deposition to shaped steel objects (as previously advocated for by William Jenkins). It should be emphasized that the entire manufacturing chain, and an extended chain than includes 3D metal powder printing to finished steel objects, (i) can be operated by robots (that can also carry out ore mining), and (ii) the robots and equipment needed to carry out this mining and manufacturing chain can be made such that their entire combined total mass is small enough to fit in Mars landing craft payloads well under 2500 kg.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:42:49.000Z
In adaptive signal processing, joint process estimation plays an important role in various estimation problems. It is well known that a joint process estimator consists of two struc- tures, namely the orthogonalizer and the regression filter. In literature, orthogonalization step is performed either by or- thogonal transformations or by linear predictors. While the orthogonal transformations do not preserve entropy; the predictors, such as the lattice, do preserve it. However, the steady-state performance of such linear predictors is not as good as those of the orthogonal transformations. Lattice filters do not perform perfect orthogonalization when they operate as gradient-based adaptive predictors. In this work, adaptive escalator predictor is proposed to be used as the orthogonalizer of the joint process estimator. The proposed method preserves the entropy and achieves perfect orthogo- nalization at all times. Moreover it has good steady-state performance compared to those structures utilizing gradient adaptive lattice filters.
MISR monthly, global 1 x 1 deg grid 'Clim-Likely' aerosol climatology, derived from 'typical-year' aerosol transport model results available in 1999. (MISR_AEROSOL_CLIM)data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:56:47.000Z
MISR monthly, global 1 x 1 deg grid 'Clim-Likely' aerosol climatology, derived from 'typical-year' aerosol transport model results available in 1999.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:09:33.000Z
For spacecraft developers who spend millions to billions of dollars per unit and require 3 to 7 years to deploy, the LoadPath reduced-order (RO) modeling thermal design tool is an innovative software tool that will significantly reduce labor costs and effort associated with the design and analysis of spacecraft thermal control systems. Unlike traditional approaches that take weeks to months to develop and obtain results, our approach can provide results in seconds to minutes. This proposed Phase I effort includes the development of a RO spacecraft thermal model utilizing a combination of a high-resolution thermal model, Latin Hypercube space-filling approaches, and Gaussian Process methods. Combined, these key components have the capability to provide a spacecraft thermal modeling software tool that provides thermal results, on average, within 3K of high-resolution models. In addition to its accuracy, the thermal software tool will be able to provide these results almost instantaneously. The ability to obtain results quickly is especially advantageous during design stages. In addition, it is especially useful for parametric studies. Parametric studies that could easily take days to complete, due to computational expense, can be completed within minutes utilizing the proposed software tool.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:54:31.000Z
In order to achieve a high payoff turbopump with a low investment, the modern turbopump in today's space propulsion program is required to have greater life, with lower maintenance costs. In order to achieve lower maintenance costs, the turnaround time between mission cycles must be kept to a minimum. At each cycle, one item on the maintenance checklist to be conducted is rotor torque. In order for a turbopump to be returned to service, among other requirements, it must be clear of all FOD as well as damage to the rotor or bearings. One maintenance check that is a valid indicator of FOD or rotor and bearing damage is a rotor torque check. Failure of a turbopump due to rotor or bearing damage may lead to an event categorized as a Criticality 1 (Loss of Life or Vehicle) failure mode. In most modern turbopumps, performing a rotor torque check involves timely and costly maintenance procedures. In many cases, inlet piping or structural cases must be removed to expose the turbopump rotor. As each piece of hardware is reinstalled, they routinely must undergo lengthy quality checks to ensure proper assembly and function. FTT proposes development of a means to measure the rotor torque through the use of an electromagnetic drive device. Similar to a DC electrical motor, the new component would be powered and cause the rotor to rotate. After recording measurements of the rotor speed and electromagnet input power, the rotor torque could be calculated. Incorporating a device such as this into a turbopump would reduce time associated with torque measurements from days to seconds.
Atmospheric Composition Ammonia Volume Mixing Ratio L3 (AIRSAC3MNH3 V3) from AIRS/AMSU on NASA Aqua at GES DISCdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-13T00:12:01.000Z
The mass concentration ammonia in the atmosphere, consists of products generated for the study of atmospheric ammonia. Atmospheric ammonia is an important component of the global nitrogen cycle. In the troposphere, ammonia reacts rapidly with acids such as sulfuric and nitric to form fine particulate matter. These ammonium containing aerosols affect Earth's radiative balance, both directly by scattering incoming radiation and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei. Major sources of atmospheric ammonia involve agricultural activities including animal husbandry, especially concentrated animal feeding operations and fertilizer use. Major sinks of atmospheric ammonia involve dry deposition and wet removal by precipitation, as well as conversion to particulate ammonium by reaction with acids. Measurements of ambient NH3 are sparse, but satellites provide a means to monitor atmospheric composition globally. Using the AIRS/AMSU satellite this algorithm provides monthly measurements of derived atmospheric NH3 for September 2002 through August 2016.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:16.000Z
The ERBE-like Footprint TOA Fluxes (ES-8) product contains 24 hours of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument, Flight Model 1 (FM1) on the Terra spacecraft . The ES-8 contains filtered radiances recorded every 0.01-second for the total (TOT), shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW and LW radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes with a scene identification algorithm and Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) which are "like" those used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The TOA fluxes, scene identification, and angular geometry are included on the ES-8. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:01.000Z
The Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The CRS contains all of the CERES SSF product data. For each CERES footprint on the SSF the CRS also contains vertical flux profiles evaluated at four levels in the atmosphere: the surface, 500-, 70-, and 1-hPa. The CRS fluxes and cloud parameters are adjusted for consistency with a radiative transfer model and adjusted fluxes are evaluated at the four atmospheric levels for both clear-sky and total-sky. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.