Voluntary Consensus Organization Standards for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aerospace Materials (including Additive Manufactured Parts)data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:14:48.000Z
<p>This NASA-industry effort accomplishes the following:</p><p>1) Lead collaboration between NASA Centers, other government agencies, industry, academia, and voluntary census organizations (ASTM Committees E07 on Nondestructive Testing, F42 on Additive Manufacturing (AM) Technologies, and ISO Technical Committee (TC) 261) to develop national standards for NDE of aerospace materials used in NASA/aerospace applications.</p><p>2) Lead a leveraged interlaboratory study (ILS) to develop NDE for qualification and certification of AM parts.</p><p>3) Lead ASTM E07 development and periodic revision of flat panel polymer matrix composite (PMC) standards: ASTM E2533 (Guide) , E2580 (ultrasonic testing (UT) , E2581 (shearography) , E2582 (flash thermography) , E2661 (acoustic emission) , E2662 (radiographic testing (RT)) , and draft work item WK40707 (active thermography).</p><p>4) Lead periodic revision of composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) standards: E2981 (overwrap)  and ASTM E2982 (liner) .</p><p>5) Develop a new NDE of AM Guide (ASTM WK47031) .</p><p>6) Develop a new eddy current test (ECT)-UT-profilometer standard practice or test method for fracture control of metal parts using 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD) of critical initial flaws sizes in metal parts (TBD).</p><p>7) Respond to NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) requests as needed (e.g., AM, advanced manufacturing, counterfeit parts and ESA/JAXA collaboration).</p><p>The historical standards development time line (Items 3 through 6) is shown in <strong>Figure 1</strong>. The WK47031 effort (Item 5) constitutes the bulk of the present focus and capitalizes on momentum created by the release of the FY14 <em>Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing</em> <em>State-of-the-Discipline Report </em>(NASA-TM-218560) . The ultimate goal vis-à-vis WK47031 is to determine the effect-of-defect of specific seeded flaw types while determining detection thresholds using controlled embedded features. A portion of this effort also dovetails with the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Universal ECT-UT-Profilometer Scanner project.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> One of the main obstacles slowing the acceptance and use of advanced materials (e.g., PMCs, COPVs and AM parts) in NASA and commercial space applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems, including sensitive NDE procedures with well-defined accept-reject criteria. Matching VCO standards are also needed to ensure process and equipment control, finished part quality and consistent inspection methodologies for finished parts after manufacturing and after installation of parts in service. In AM, the possibility to ‘design to constraint’ offers a paradigm shift opening the door to make parts with shorter production lead times, less waste, improved cost, maximized properties, and reduced weight. However, to fully realize the merits of this and other advanced processing technologies, and to ensure parts of the highest quality end up in NASA/aerospace applications, new approaches to for in-situ monitoring NDE used during manufacturing, post-process NDE used on as-build and finished parts are needed. In AM, for example, NDE procedures must be able to detect flaw types (<strong>Figure 2</strong>), many of which are not found in cast, wrought or conventionally welded parts (<strong>Figure 3</strong>). Deeply embedded porosity, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features (e.g., lattice structures) impose additional challenges on conventional NDE.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Technical Approach: </strong> In the WK47031 effort (<strong>Figure 4</strong>), a NASA-led interlaboratory study (ILS) is currently being conducted to identify and refine NDE for inspection of AM aerospace parts. This effort is spread across g
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:57:20.000Z
This dataset is comprised of asteroid flux data measured in 26 filters using the McCord dual beam photometer, and covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 microns for 285 numbered asteroids, as published in Chapman & Gaffey (1979b) and McFadden, et al. (1984).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:43:16.000Z
The proposed 45 nm radiation hardened platform based structured ASIC architecture offers the performance and density expected of a custom ASIC with the low manufacturing cost associated with a structured ASIC. The low cost, high performance customization of the structured ASIC portion of the chip is made possible by the 1-D 45 nm Mask-Lite process technology.
AirMSPI verison 6 terrain-projected georegistered radiance product acquired during the SPEX-PR flight campaigndata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:49:02.000Z
AirMSPI_SPEX-PR_Terrain-projected_Georegistered_Radiance_Data is an AirMSPI terrain-projected georegistered radiance product acquired during the SPEX engineering flights + Porter Ranch gas leak overflights (SPEX-PR) flight campaign. AirMSPI Level 1B2 products contain radiometric and polarimetric images of clouds, aerosols, and the surface of the Earth. In particular, products contain map-projected data at 8 wavelengths: 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm. The data products include radiance, time, solar zenith, solar azimuth, view zenith, and view azimuth for all spectral bands. Wavelengths for which polarization information is available (470, 660, and 865 nm) also include the Stokes parameters Q and U, as well as degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and angle of linear polarization (AOLP). Q, U, and AOLP are reported relative to both the scattering- and view meridian planes. Files are distributed in HDF-EOS-5 format. This release of AirMSPI data contains all targets acquired during the SPEX engineering flights + Porter Ranch gas leak overflights (SPEX-PR) flight campaign, which was based out of Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, CA. The SPEX engineering flights conducted on February 2 through February 5, 2016 focused on the checkout of another polarimeter, SPEX airborne, built by SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, with AirMSPI providing validation. On February 9, the ER-2 overflew the Porter Ranch, California natural gas leak with AirMSPI and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) collecting data.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T02:14:25.000Z
The objective of this research is to create a suite of tools for monitoring airport gate activities with the objective of improving aircraft turnaround. Airport ramp areas are the most crowded and cluttered spaces in the entire National Airspace System (NAS). Activities related to turnaround of the aircraft from the gate represent a significant source of delay and therefore impact the predictability of NAS operations. Optimal Synthesis Inc., seeks to leverage its expertise in monitoring aircraft in the ramp areas using video surveillance data and advanced computer vision algorithms towards building an advanced gate activity monitoring that will in turn enable a gate turnaround prediction tool. The tool suite will specifically identify the various stages of turnaround such as refueling, luggage unloading/loading, catering, and deicing. It will further create a probabilistic model of the times associated with each of these events, that will be used for predicting the future sequence of events and their predicted times of completion. Phase I research will demonstrate the core ideas of gate activity recognition using state-of-the-art computer vision and machine learning algorithms. Phase II research will elevate the technology readiness level of this tool suite to work with real-time video surveillance streams.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:05:26.000Z
Resident of a smart home, who may be an old person or an Alzheimer patient needing permanent assistance, actuates the world by realizing activities, which are observed through the embedded sensors of smart home. Typically, this person may sometimes forget completion of the activities; may realize the activities of daily living incorrectly, and may enter to dangerous states. In order to provide automatic assistance for the smart home resident through the embedded electronically controllable actuators and make the smart home resident able to live independently at home we propose to calculate a possibilistic logical space for correct realization of activities, which may be represented in form of a multivariable problem. Regardless from the physical entity (modality and location) of the intelligence source and the quantity of individuals who perform the activities; per each possible goal or activity, we consider a unique source of intelligence (for example a social mind) who directs the order of fuzzy events that occur in the ambient environment, then the plan behind world actuations is modeled applying extensions of the fuzzy logic. The main key point that we deal with is the analysis of the observations in order to make inferences about possible simultaneous activities that may be planned and realized by one or more individuals; so that we can reason in the cases the parallel activities are interrupted.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:17:42.000Z
Future robotic missions to Venus require actuators for powering robotic arms, sampling systems, and gimbals for the positioning of cameras and antennas. There are many types of actuators (e.g. pneumatic, hydraulic); however electric actuators offer the greatest versatility for space missions. An electric actuator consists of an electric motor and a position sensor. The electric motor converts electrical energy (electricity) into mechanical output (shaft rotation). The position sensor, on the other hand, determines the angular position of the motor shaft, which then is processed by drive electronics to commutate and control the motor. Because of the extreme conditions on the Venus surface (92 bar pressure, 462 °C temperature, and supercritical CO2 atmosphere), conventional actuators will not be able to function properly, or at all. The main challenges pertain to changes in electrical properties like an increase in wire resistance (leading to greater losses), changes in magnetic properties like permeability and retentivity (leading to demagnetization of magnets), and changes in physical properties such as linear expansion, decrease in strength, increase in friction, and accelerated oxidation. Since 2007, Honeybee and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been developing Venus actuator technologies. We developed a 48V Brushless DC motor (BLDC) and custom position sensor called the Pulsed Injection Position Sensor (PIPS) for motor commutation and feedback control. The motor and PIPS are at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5. The main objective of the proposed work is to mature the Venus actuator technology through an iterative process of Venus chamber testing of a TRL5 actuator, followed by re-design and fabrication of a TRL6 actuator and subsequent Venus chamber qualification testing of that actuator. The critical objectives to be met are as follows: 1. Design of a motor with 28V windings (28 V is a conventional spacecraft power bus), 2. Increase PIPS resolution from 12 to 48 counts/rev (this will make motor more efficient and allow actuator to be used for precision positioning systems – robotic arms and gimbals), 3. Establish reproducible procedures, standards, and guidelines for fabricating, assembly, test, and inspection of Venus actuators (currently actuators are hand crafted by selected engineers – this knowledge needs to be captured so that any skilled person will be able to fabricate Venus actuator whenever needed). Technical approach: This effort will be achieved in one year period to enable technology infusion into the New Frontiers (NF) Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) mission. Specific tasks are: Step 1 (Months 1-3): we will characterize performance of the TRL5 actuator under Venus conditions in JPL’s Venus Materials Test Facility (VMTF) chamber. We will connect two existing TRL5 BLDC actuators: one will act as a brake to enable characterization of the second actuator. The actuator will be run until failure in order to assess failure condition. Step 2 (Months 4-9): we will incorporate lessons from Step 1 to design and fabricate three 28V actuators. We will develop procedures and standards for fabrication, inspection and testing. Step 3 (Months 10-12): we will perform the same tests as in Step 1 to characterize performance of the 28V actuators. At this point, it is assumed that we will be able to fabricate identical TRL 6 actuators by following manufacturing process developed in Step 2. Significance of the work to the solicitation: HOTTech supports development of electrical technologies (such as our proposed electric actuator) for the robotic exploration of Venus surfaces. Our electrical actuator will enable Venus missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers (Venus In Situ Explorer), and Flagship (Venus Mobile Explorer) class. Per HOTTech, our actuator also has terrestrial applications in the Geothermal, Oil and Gas, and Aeronautical industries.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:04:15.000Z
The environmental impact of aviation is enormous given the fact that in the US alone there are nearly 6 million flights per year of commercial aircraft. This situation has driven numerous policy and procedural measures to help develop environmentally friendly technologies which are safe and affordable and reduce the environmental impact of aviation. However, many of these technologies require significant initial investment in newer aircraft fleets and modifications to existing regulations which are both long and costly enterprises. We propose to use an anomaly detection method based on Virtual Sensors to help detect overconsumption of fuel in aircraft which relies only on the data recorded during flight of most existing commercial aircraft, thus significantly reducing the cost and complexity of implementing this method. The Virtual Sensors developed here are ensemble-learning regression models for detecting the overconsumption of fuel based on instantaneous measurements of the aircraft state. This approach requires no additional information about standard operating procedures or other encoded domain knowledge. We present experimental results on three data sets and compare five different Virtual Sensors algorithms. The first two data sets are publicly available and consist of a simulated data set from a flight simulator and a real-world turbine disk.We show the ability to detect anomalies with high accuracy on these data sets. These sets contain seeded faults, meaning that they have been deliberately injected into the system. The second data set is from realworld fleet of 84 jet aircraft where we show the ability to detect fuel overconsumption which can have a significant environmental and economic impact. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind in the aviation domain.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:11:03.000Z
To solve the problem of autonomous navigation on small satellite platforms less than 20 kg, we propose to develop an onboard orbit determination receiver for small LEO satellites which lack stable Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), continuous GPS coverage, or ground tracking. The system is a refinement of existing spaceborne receiver technology built around a new, innovative collective detection and direct positioning algorithm developed by Dr. Penny Axelrad, a reduced set of GPS hardware, and a compact orbit propagator. The small satellite collective orbit determination receiver (SCOR) brings together efficient reference orbit representations, snapshot GPS sampling, collective detection and direct positioning, and modular orbit propagation methods, to produce an effective new approach for onboard support of small satellites. Since the collective detection algorithm does not require continuous GPS tracking to generate navigation solutions, portions of the receiver can be duty cycled to reduce power consumption between measurements. Additionally, this approach allows for satellites without pointing capabilities to obtain sufficient measurements to generate solutions by taking multiple snapshots when the spacecraft attitude is in a favorable orientation with respect to the GPS constellation.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:19:14.000Z
The goal of this project is to mature the technology readiness of a radiation tolerant smallsat computer system for a subsequent orbital flight demonstration. The system is implemented with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to provide space-computing performance that improves upon existing radiation hardened processors. Commercial FPGAs are now yielding acceptable levels of total ionizing dose immunity due to the thinning of gate oxides and relative deepening of isolation trenches. If a single event effect mitigation strategy can be implemented on COTS FPGAs, then reliable, high performance space computing can be accomplished at a fraction of the cost of existing radiation hardened processors.