- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:04:01.000Z
Microcosm along with its partners HRP Systems, End-to-End Analytics, and ARES Corporation (unfunded in Phase I), propose to develop a new solution for detailed data gathering to support improved ground-up cost estimation. It will enable frequent collection and archiving of cost and other data down to the lowest WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) levels. Current parametric space system cost estimation tools such as NAFCOM (NASA/Air Force Cost Model) and SSCM (Small Satellite Cost Model) provide good results when schedules and design and management approaches are similar to those in their existing databases --primarily traditional approaches, but they can fall-flat when applied to programs focused on rapid design and development and/or very low costs. To address these types of programs, more and better data is required. The Microcosm team proposes an approach similar to and complementary to earned value data collection and reporting. In addition to gathering detailed actuals, this approach also requires cost and schedule forecast updates and forecast uncertainty estimates to be updated and collected as well as supplementary explanatory information. With this additional data models can be improved, and program and task managers can be trained to become better forecasters.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T10:53:04.000Z
<p>The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft interior outfitting components. Examples of inflatable IVA structures that can be assembled include crew quarters, waste & hygiene compartment, crew medical restraint system, splints, science payload racks, stowage and other equipment racks, science glove box, recreational devices, other portable devices, work surfaces and other workstations, support braces, other secondary structures, etc. This inflatable technology can enable such hardware to be packaged in much smaller volumes for delivery in logistics flights or potentially to be integrated within inflatable spacecraft, increasing trade space options. Crew can also reconfigure spacecraft in-flight, using the ability to 3D-print custom connectors to redesign living spaces or create entirely new interior architectures to respond to mission developments or psychosocial needs.</p> <p>The Habitabiltiy Design Center has already prototyped scale models of inflatable crew stations and initial prototypes of a standard interface connector. These connectors have demonstrated basic capability, but are too large relative to the airbeams for pracitcal use. We have a notional reduced size connector and will use this concept as a starting point, to fabricate and test under operational inflation pressures. Pending initial success, we will fabricate various connectors to provide several linear and angled connections. This will form the basic building block for assembly of a variety of crew stations and support hardware.</p><p> </p><p>This research addresses HAT Needs Numbers 12.1.a and 12.1.b and provides steps towards several HAT-specified performance targets: Bladder Material Selection: The potentially frequent cycles of inflation and deflation experienced by IVA inflatable structures will require bladder material and seal interfaces capable of resisting puncture, tear, flex cracking, or other damage due to folding, handling, or stowage temperatures. Predictive Modeling of Deployment Dynamics: Inflation or deflation may involve imparted torques and loads that require IVA inflatable structures to be anchored to the spacecraft secondary structure prior to the initiation of inflation or deflation. Lightweight Structures and Materials Optimization to Realize Structural System Dry Mass Savings (Minimum of 20-25%) and Operational Cost Savings: The inflatable air beam and connector technology offers significant dry mass savings over traditional IVA structural materials. Structural mass savings for an individual crew quarters is expected to be in excess of 75% over ISS crew quarters.</p><p> </p><p>The intended product deliverable of this activity includes three airbeams of at least 12-inch length and no less than one each of the following: 90-degree connector, 45-degree connector, 180-degree connector, 90-degree five-airbeam connector, 60-degree three-airbeam connector. Additionally, a test report and CAD models for each connector will constitute deliverables of this activity.</p><p> </p><p>Upon completion of this initial ICA effort, we will be able to demonstrate use of the airbeams in conjunction with existing Logistics to Living Modified Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTBs) to demonstrate deployable partitions as an initial example case. This demonistration will be helpful in explaining the potential for continued investment to reduce both mass and habitability risks. We will continue to pursue research funding for further development and will also pursue options to directly engage exploration programs to generate solutions for their specific mission architectures.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:45:37.000Z
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop new solar cells based on a ferroelectric semiconductor absorber material that can yield a 30% increase in efficiency and a 20% increase in specific power compared with current triple-junction III-V cells. These gains will be realized by exploiting a unique charge separation mechanism in ferroelectrics that enables open-circuit voltages many times the band gap, leading to maximum power conversion efficiencies exceeding the conventional Shockley-Queisser limit (33%). PSI and team members will create photovoltaic cells based on Earth-abundant SnS stabilized in a ferroelectric state by epitaxial strain engineering. By combining above-gap cell voltages with the high absorption coefficient (<1 x 105 cm-1 at 500 nm), low density (5.22 g/cm3), and ideal band gap (1.1 eV) of SnS, a mass-specific power density of 120 kW/kg (mass of absorber material, 1 um absorber thickness) is projected. In addition, a maximum cell efficiency of >45% is anticipated to be achievable. Importantly, these cells will also offer improved radiation resistance due to the reduced carrier diffusion lengths required by the unique ferroelectric charge separation mechanism. During Phase I, PSI, guided by first-principles calculations conducted by the PARADIM Center at Cornell University, will demonstrate room-temperature ferroelectric ordering in SnS through epitaxial strain engineering. During Phase II, PSI and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will demonstrate the potential of the proposed absorber by achieving above-band gap open-circuit voltages in prototype cells. During a Phase III effort, the efficiency of these cells will be increased to a target value of 45% through reduction of intrinsic defects, leading to substantial improvements in cell size, weight, and power output.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-02T05:56:50.000Z
Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is an ongoing geophysical process and is measured by gravimetry satellites like GRACE and GRACE-FO. To isolate signals of contemporary surface mass loss in the cumulative satellite gravimetry measurements, contemporary GIA rates are computed and subtracted from the satellite gravimetry observations. The GIA correction models provided here are filtered such that they are compatible with Level-3 post-processing filters applied to GRACE(-FO) data as indicated in the [product_id]. In this way, user can effectively assess the impact of the applied GIA correction, and substitute different GIA models should that be desired. This GIA dataset is mapped into 0.5-degree global grid compatible with the JPL Mascon solution, provided in netCDF format.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:20:39.000Z
Assistive Free-Flyers (AFFs) are flying robots designed to share the living space with human astronauts in orbit. These robots have shown the potential to assist astronauts with tasks such as surveillance, inspection, and mapping. However, AFFs are currently designed without manipulation capabilities, and can thus be deployed mainly for sensing and observation. In this project, we aim to provide AFFs with the capability to physically interact with the environment through manipulation. We plan to equip AFFs with compact yet dexterous robotic arms and hands developed in this project, along with the planning and control methods needed to operate them. We aim to demonstrate new capabilities on tasks such as object acquisition and transport, part insertion and extraction, button or lever operation, docking and perching. We believe these abilities will greatly increase AFFs' reach, literally and figuratively.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:55:56.000Z
Monitoring of structural strain is a well-established method for assessing the fatigue life and operational loads of aerospace vessels, aircraft, bridges, and other load-bearing structures. Information from extensive instrumentation using 100's to 1000's of strain gages can be fed into a condition based maintenance (CBM) algorithm to improve structural health assessments, detect damage, and lower maintenance costs. Current methods for measuring strain are too cumbersome, bulky, and costly to be practical for a large scale dense network of strain sensors. Furthermore, existing piezoelectric-based vibrational energy harvesters are built around general purpose components designed for operation in low-temperature application spaces. To realize pervasive structural health monitoring across a wide range of thermal and vibrational environments, a low cost, minimally intrusive, low maintenance, and reliable technology is needed. Cutting edge microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors for measurements of strain, acceleration, pressure, acoustic emission, and temperature are becoming increasingly available for use in CBM and structural health monitoring (SHM). While these sensors offer a promising future for wireless sensing networks (WSN), implementation for CBM remains cumbersome due to the lack of versatile, cost-effective powering solutions. Wiring external power to sensors is an unattractive solution given the required installation overhead and associated maintenance costs. Battery powered solutions are unreliable and battery maintenance for a dense network of thousands of sensor nodes is not practical. For this STTR effort, Prime Photonics proposes to team with Virginia Tech to develop a multimode vibrational-thermal harvester with effective energy capture and efficient conversion.
Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007), Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:38:25.000Z
NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, > $250/Watt, there is considerable additional cost associated with the parts and labor needed to integrate the Photovoltaic Assembly. The standard approach has evolved with only minor changes, sacrificing cost because of risk aversion. Integration cost can be as much as double the bare cell cost – i.e. >$500/watt. Dramatic cost savings can be realized through manufacturing engineering of more efficient automated assembly processes. If the design of the Photovoltaic Assembly could be modified to be compatible with conventional and automatable electronic assembly and terrestrial solar panel assembly approaches, there could be considerable cost savings. There are many additional benefits with automation which include higher quality and consistency. This can reduce failures, increase production throughput, speed turnaround, and improve overall reliability. Cost and quality improvements can be realized on both thin and rigid arrays, increasing current capabilities, and enabling future high power missions. The benefits of automation are enhanced by the need for high power generation in support of energy intensive space missions. A 300kW array at $500/W would cost $150M just for the solar cell integrated array panels. A $150/W cell integration cost reduction would translate into savings of $45M, before considering the immediate and substantial benefits in consistency, reliability, and schedule. The Phase I effort demonstrates feasibility of a low cost array using an automated and integrated manufacturing approach, performed on an automation friendly solar cell, verified with environmental testing, and is used to predict array cost for a high power mission. Meeting these technical objectives will demonstrate reduced cost and justify a Phase II SBIR program preparing for a flight experiment.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:02:30.000Z
The eight color asteroid survey provides reflection spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. This dataset includes the primary data obtained for 589 minor planets. The mean values for each minor planet included in the survey, the response curves for the filters, and the values determined for standard stars, are included in other related datasets. The wavelength range covered is from .33 to 1.04 micrometers.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T03:28:23.000Z
This data set contains calibrated, narrow band filter images (350-950 nm) of Earth acquired by the Deep Impact High Resolution Visible CCD (HRIV) during the EPOCh and Cruise 2 phases of the EPOXI mission. Five sets of observations were acquired on 18-19 March, 28-29 May and 04-05 June 2008 and on 27-28 March and 04-05 October 2009 to characterize Earth as an analog for extrasolar planets. Each observing period lasted approximately 24 hours. HRIV images were acquired once per hour with the filters centered on 350, 750 and 950 nm, whereas the 450-, 550-, 650-, and 850-nm data were taken every 15 minutes. During the observing period in May 2008, the Moon transited across Earth as seen from the spacecraft. On 27 September 2009 during the first attempt of an Earth south polar observation, only seven HRIV frames were acquired before fault protection turned that instrument off; the full sequence was successfully rerun on 04-05 October 2009. Version 2.0 includes the application of a horizontal destriping process and revised electronic crosstalk calibration files.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:44:42.000Z
Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is an innovative new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. The approach with MVP, rather than using exotic propellants to achieve maximum specific impulse and system performance, is to use an inexpensive, inert, solid propellant. This enables the use of a propulsion system on lower budget missions by lowering the unit cost (no valves or pressure vessels), and minimizes range safety expenses. By using a commercially available, space rated polymer as propellant, MVP overcomes potential issues associated with liquid propellants such as freezing, over-pressurization, degradation (of tank wall and/or propellant itself), and cg perturbations due to sloshing. As a result, MVP's standalone risk to the primary payload is no greater than that of a CubeSat not equipped with propulsion. MVP harnesses technology used in 3D printing applications to feed propellant into proven electrothermal propulsion technology developed by CU Aerospace. To date, MVP has demonstrated a continuous 105 seconds specific impulse with 20 W input power, with 107 seconds peak. Phase II performance is expected to exceed 130 seconds. This should provide 900 N-s total impulse with a 1U (10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) system, attributable to the high storage density and permissible thin walled construction. A 4 kg, 3U CubeSat equipped with MVP could achieve 250 m/s Delta-V while expending less than 25 W during operation. CU Aerospace will design, fabricate, and deliver a 1U MVP system to NASA at the end of the Phase II program.