- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:50:14.000Z
CAL_LID_L2_05kmCPro-Prov-V3-40 data are CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Cloud Profile data. The Lidar Level 2 Cloud Profile data product contains cloud profile data and ancillary data. The cloud profile product is produced at 5 km horizontal resolution and is written in HDF. Note that there is no atmospheric volume characterization associated with the cloud profile products. Also, the 1064 calibration scheme assumes that both the extinction and the backscatter from clouds are spectrally independent. Consistent with this assumption, extinction and backscatter profiles will be reported for clouds only at 532 nm. Additionally, it is important to note that the aerosol profile product extends upward to 30.1 km, while the cloud profile product ceases at 20.2. Therefore, users interested in polar stratospheric clouds will need to order the aerosol profile data product. The science algorithms used to produce the V3.40 CALIOP data products are identical to those used to generate the V3.01 and V3.02 products; however, some of the ancillary data used in the V3.40 analyses is different. All CALIOP data products rely on meteorological data provided by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The V3.01 and V3.02 data products were produced using the GMAO's GEOS 5.2 data products. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. It flies in the international A-Train constellation for coincident Earth observations. The CALIPSO satellite comprises three instruments, the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and the Wide Field Camera (WFC). CALIPSO is a joint satellite mission between NASA and the French Agency, CNES.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:39:20.000Z
<p>The primary objective of this activity is to develop, design, and test (DD&T) the QUAD-core siTARA (QUATARA) computer to distribute computationally intensive processes such as: communication, sensors, attitude determination, attitude control, cameras, robotic manipulators, and science payloads. An example of the current state-of-the art for a COTS CubeSat flight computer is, a 16 bit 80 MHz Microchip dsPIC33 microcontroller capable of managing the satellite attitude determination, control system, communication system, power, and science payloads. Adding more capability to these COTS flight computers required the development, under a previous CIF proposal, of the Modular Attitude Determination System (MADS) board. MADS lessened the I/O load from the flight computer so it could focus on higher priority tasks such as managing a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) or carrying out an attitude control algorithm. The MADS board utilized a 16 bit 80 MHz Texas Instruments ARM Cortex-M4 Stellaris microcontroller to execute the attitude determination algorithm independently of the dsPIC33 flight computer. Once the MADS board processes the data, the dsPIC33 receives the estimated states and determines the desired attitude control.</p><p>The addition of cameras, proximity sensors, robotic manipulators, thruster systems, complex science payloads and video guidance systems, would cause current CubeSat flight computers to be overwhelmed. Because of the desire to expand the capabilities of CubeSats, the innovation of the QUATARA architecture enhances the capabilities of data handling and computer processing by replacing the 16 bit 80 MHz microcontrollers with four 64 bit 1 GHz microprocessors. The QUATARA allows for tasks to be processed at a faster rate not only because of the difference in clock speed between the platforms but also because of the fact that there are four individual microprocessors which can run these tasks independently without the need to serialize the execution of the code like in a single microcontroller.</p><p>The QUATARA computer aims to be fault-tolerant by means of a software voting scheme to guard against the effects of Single Event Effects (SEE) such as Single Event Upsets (SEU). Each ‘node’ (Gumstix Computer-On-Modules (COM)) of the QUATARA computer will be connected to its own set of sensors and actuators. These individual nodes will collect their respective data and share it between themselves over a data bus (such as RS-485). Once each node has all the data from all of the other nodes it will process it and come up with a result. This result can then be used to determine if a node is considered as ‘failed’ and that node then needs to be disabled, (this can be done by ignoring future data received from that node or by completely shutting it off). In the case a node is lost a support node is available to be switched in for the failed node. This support node will focus on low priority tasks, (such as housekeeping), if it is not required as a voting node. Synchronization between the nodes can be maintained by having a precise timing source on each of the processors, (such as a ticking timer interrupt routine), that ticks at a set time interval. This timing information will be passed between the nodes and the tick rate of the interrupt routine will be modified as required to ensure that all of the nodes data remains in sync.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:12:36.000Z
Current-day capabilities for performing post operations analysis (POA) of air traffic operations at airports, airlines and FAA facilities are mostly limited to creating reporting type of analysis results which compare mean values of key performance indicators against the respective expected nominal levels (e.g., average daily delay). This single point comparison method does not directly enable a POA analyst to identify the root-cause for a particular observed inefficiency, nor does it help in identifying a solution for mitigating that inefficiency. This SBIR develops a machine learning based approach for improving POA and for potentially making it more autonomous. We call this tool Collective Inference based Data Analytics System for POA (CIDAS-P). CIDAS-P will provide airport, airline, FAA and NASA personnel with a fast, flexible and streamlined process for analyzing the day-of-operations, rapidly pinpointing exact causes for any observed inefficiencies, as well as recommending actions to be taken to avoid the same inefficiencies in the future. It does this by developing an innovative, collective inference algorithm for cross-comparing performance of the same facility on different days as well as cross-comparing performance across different facilities. The algorithm leverages sophisticated probabilistic modeling techniques that consider the subtle nuances by which cross-facility and cross-day operational scenarios differ to enable apples-to-apples comparisons across traffic scenarios and identify what works well and what does not in similar situations. User acceptance of NASA Trajectory Based Operations research products stands to benefit from CIDAS-P because CIDAS-P's automated recommendations can help identify and fix problems with these products early on in their deployment life-cycle.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:04:16.000Z
slowed rotor / compound (SL/C) aircraft offer VTOL combined with fixed-wing flight-efficiencies. They are safer than any other type aircraft -- with much lower acquisition, maintenance and operational cost than helicopters and tiltrotors. Carter Aviation Technologies began developing SL/C aircraft in 1994 and began flying a prototype, the CarterCopter Technology Demonstrator (CCTD) in 1998. This proposal, using CCTD data, will provide a prototype 2-seat SR/C, VTOL aircraft that meets NASA?s PAVE goals. Reduced community noise is provided by a computerized propeller, designed for quietness, which operates at low tip-speeds and is protected by tail-booms. The non-stalling autorotating rotor provides low tip-speeds, eliminates the helicopter ?dead man zone? and provides the equivalent of an emergency parachute. Low cost per seat mile is provided by simplified construction, reduced parts count and high flight-efficiency. During VTOL and low-speed flight, SR/C aircraft fly like an autogyro having the same hp to weight ratio. Autogyros are the easiest aircraft to learn to fly safely. Pilot workload is simplified by an automated tilting pylon that keeps the wings in best L/D, an automated boosted collective and automated rotor flapping controls. The landing gear absorbs 24 ft/sec impacts. Only the tilting pylon is untested.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T02:13:20.000Z
Given that SysML is becoming a standard for model-based systems engineering and Integration (SE&I), system health management (SHM)-related models will either be done in SysML, or be done outside of SysML but enabled by conversion, mapping, and traceability of information across SysML and SHM models. Given that current implementations of SysML are not particularly useful to perform analyses, and that SHM analyses are not identical to typical SE&I-related analyses, there will need to be connectivity between SysML representations and SHM models that perform SHM-related analyses. Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI), with Dr. Stephen Johnson as a consultant intends to explore and develop the integration of model-based systems engineering and Integration (SE&I) using SysML with system health management (SHM) modeling and analysis using QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS). An overarching objective of this proposal is to reduce the duplicative and disjoint effort by NASA's subject matter experts in the development of systems engineering and design models as well as systems health management/fault management models. The intent is to leverage the success space or intent based system design models and transform them for developing fault management models and ensuring changes in design have a natural flow-through to the FM domain, thereby keeping FM models in sync with the design through a semi-automated process. This is one step in the larger set of issues that will need to be addressed in the development of the model-based Discipline of Systems Engineering and its concurrent integration with SHM to achieve higher-quality designs while reducing the costs of SE&I.
NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Monthly Climatology of the 1st decade of the 21st Century V1.0 (NEWS_WEB_MCLIM) at GES DISCdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-13T00:23:33.000Z
NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Climatology of the 1st decade of the 21st Century Dataset summarizes the original observationally-based mean fluxes of water and energy budget components during the first decade of the 21st Century, for each continent and ocean basin on monthly and annual scales as well as means over all oceans, all continents, and the globe. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. Also, it includes optimized versions of all component fluxes that simultaneously satisfy energy and water cycle balance constraints. The NEWS Climatology contains two data products: an annual climatology data product and a monthly climatology data product. This data product is the monthly climatology product. The climatology base period is roughly 1998-2010, where individual datasets cover various periods starting as early as 1998 and as late as 2002, not all extending to 2010. The continents and ocean basins boundaries map is used in this study to compute regional means. The ocean basin data was provided by Kyle Hilburn and Chelle Gentemann at Remote Sensing Systems. The land portion and some inland water bodies of the data are delineated into continents according to general definitions found in Wikipedia and relevant past studies. The data are distributed with four different units (1000 km^3/month, W/m^2, cm/month, and mm/day), in three formats (NetCDF, xlsx, and csv).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:49:37.000Z
CAL_LID_L1-ValStage1-V3-30 data are Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Lidar Level 1B profile data. The CALIPSO Lidar Level 1B data product contains a half orbit (day or night) of calibrated and geolocated single-shot (highest resolution) lidar profiles, including 532 nm and 1064 nm attenuated backscatter and depolarization ratio at 532 nm. The product released contains data from nominal science mode measurement. The CALIPSO Lidar Level 1B product also contains additional data not found in the Level 0 lidar input file, including post processed ephemeris data, celestial data, and converted payload status data. The science algorithms used to produce the V3.30 CALIOP data products are identical to those used to generate the V3.01 and V3.02 products; however, some of the ancillary data used in the v3.30 analyses is different. All CALIOP data products rely on meteorological data provided by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The V3.01 and V3.02 data products were produced using the GMAO's GEOS 5.2 data products. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. It flies in the international A-Train (PDF) constellation for coincident Earth observations. The CALIPSO satellite comprises three instruments, the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and the Wide Field Camera (WFC). CALIPSO is a joint satellite mission between NASA and the French Agency, CNES.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:19:52.000Z
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a low-cost Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) evaporator using a technique known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS), otherwise known as 3D printing, to produce low-cost LHPs to be used in CubeSat and SmallSat applications. The wick structure in an LHP assumes the role of a pump in a standard loop, pumping liquid from the lower pressure condenser to the higher pressure evaporator by capillary forces. The overall thermal performance of the system is therefore highly dependent on the in-situ characteristics of the wick structure. Current LHP wick manufacturing and installation processes are cumbersome, labor intensive, and suffer from a low yield rate. Specifically, the primary wick's hydrodynamic characteristics and sealing integrity to the envelope are critical to heat transport, start-up, shut down and overall reliability. It is estimated that the cost to produce an LHP evaporator, including the attachment of the bayonet, secondary wick and compensation chamber, accounts for approximately 75% of the total system's manufacturing cost. By 3D printing an evaporator envelope with an integral porous primary wick structure, the overall complexity and cost of the design can be significantly reduced.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:53:56.000Z
Accurate predictive modeling of certain atmospheric chemical phenomena (i.e. volcano plumes, smog, gas clouds, wildfire smoke, etc.) suffers from a dearth of information, largely due to the fact that the dynamic qualities of the phenomenon evade accurate data collection. In situ measurements are currently made through the use of ground sensors and dropsondes. ?Ground sensors, such as seismometers, tiltmeters, in-ground gas monitors and near-field remote sensings instruments[,]? have limited measurement density and provide only information about atmospheric boundary conditions. Dropsondes can provide measurements over the entire vertical profile, but are limited to sampling over a small time period. In situ measurements can be augmented with satellite-based remote sensing systems, such as ASTER, MODIS, AIRS and OMI, however, satellite-based data suffers from its relatively small spatial density and limited frequency of measurement. A need exists for additional targeted in situ data from volcanic ash clouds, particularly to assess ...particle size distribution, ash cloud height, and ash cloud thickness including spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability of ash concentration. The proposed innovation, the SuperSwift XT, will meet NASA's need to enhance [the] performance and utility of NASA's airborne science fleet by providing a durable, terrain-following UAS that will be adapted for use in harsh environments containing environmental phenomena that impacts societal activity (i.e. volcanic emissions impacting the safety of passenger aviation). The sUAS will provide targeted, in situ observations from previously inaccessible regions that can significantly advance NASA?s goal of safe, efficient growth in global aviation by aiding in the collection of scientific data from which predictive Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD) used to inform air traffic management systems.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:41:54.000Z
Power management and distribution systems in future NASA flights would benefit greatly from high-voltage DC power, both to reduce power losses and to facilitate solar electric propulsion, the use of ion drives powered by photovoltaic arrays. Silicon Carbide (SiC) power transistors are ideal electrical candidates for these applications, but heavy-ion radiation tests (in particle accelerators simulating the radiation environment experienced by space-borne electronics) of Silicon Carbide power diodes and SiC power MOSFETs reveal two unexpected phenomena: 1) discrete, permanent increases in off-state current with each ion strike; and 2) a single-event-burnout (SEB) type of hard failure where off-state current increases suddenly to destructive levels after an ion strike at bias levels only a fraction of the device maximum voltage rating. Experimentally observed heavy-ion behavior in SiC power devices is not currently captured in Poisson-solver Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) finite-element simulation programs. It is unclear why the heavy-ion response of SiC devices differs so much from that of silicon power diodes and MOSFETs. Possible explanations include the wide band-gap and complex band structure of SiC, the anisotropic structure of the SiC crystal, lattice defects, and local disruption of the crystal structure by the energy deposition of the heavy ion. This work will seek to identify the physical mechanisms in the heavy ion response of SiC power devices through physical analysis, electrical and radiation testing, and device simulation, and to develop new and appropriate physics models for TCAD device simulation software that facilitate describing these physical mechanisms and their effect on device behavior. Once these mechanisms are well-understood, mitigation measures can be undertaken by device manufacturers to make the next generation of SiC devices less vulnerable to radiation effects, enabling NASA to use these power transistors to achieve their goals of high voltage, highly efficient, lightweight and compact space power systems.