- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T02:13:03.000Z
During Phase 1, we investigated a number of blade designs for 2, 3, and 4 blade sampler geometries. We found that blades with small apex angles can penetrate harder formations with much lower energies. We propose to develop a 3 or 4 blade design for sampling much harder (4 MPa and more) material. During Phase 2 we will initially perform more extensive blade testing to determine optimum design, we will also investigate use of pyros to deploy blades, breadboard and test force neutral deployment and investigate One Resettable vs Multiple Samplers architectures. These studies will lead to 3 vs 4 blade architecture study (Tetrahedron Comet Sampler or TeCos and Pyramid Comet Sampler or PyCoS) and downselection. The TRL 4 TeCoS or PyCoS will then be build and tested. The results will be used to design TRL 5 system. The TRL prototype will then be build and tested in a range of analog materials from 5 DOF arm to mimic 2-3 DOF TAG arm and spacecraft movement.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T05:04:30.000Z
Lunar dust creates a number of hazards to lunar operations including, effect on human health, degradation of life support systems, wear to mechanical systems and loss of efficiency of solar arrays. Lunar operations require a system which mechanically removes dust from key systems and prevents its redeposition. While there is no wind on the moon, electrical phenomena allow the transport of lunar dust over long distances. Lunar dust is constantly in motion. There are currently no dust mitigation techniques that can be applied to a variety of surfaces which can mechanically remove dust and prevent its redeposition. Electrostatic dust removal techniques are being developed, but these have not been tested with the pure iron particles found in lunar dust and lack mechanical removal schemes needed for imbricated angular particles. Physical Sciences Inc. and West Virginia University proposes a novel liquid crystal membrane dust mitigation system (LCMDMS). This system uses both electro static (conductive layers for charge control) and mechanical (vibrating surface) dust removal/prevention techniques to maintain dust free operation of flexible, curved, transparent and opaque lunar based systems. This system is designed to be transparent and applied as a membrane to a surface which needs to be kept dust free.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:06:22.000Z
This proposal covers processing of raw Martian regolith to both an enriched iron ore and liberated water, and also iron ore reduction and oxygen production, metal purification and steel powder making. Our proposal uses heat re-cycling to improve the energy efficiency of both regolith-to-ore enrichment and iron ore reduction. This heat re-cycling creates a bonus, the liberation of water (formerly bound to the regolith) as liquid water and a relatively low temperature water vapor. This water can be retrieved with the addition of a small condenser unit and a water storage tank/heat sink. Iron (and other transition metal) oxides are reduced using a reducing gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide inside two multi-use vessels (MUVs, in which heat recycling is also done). The reduction makes metals, mostly iron, but also exhausts water and carbon dioxide. This exhaust is re-cycled to a water/carbon dioxide splitter that produces the hydrogen and carbon monoxide reducing gases and also oxygen. The preferred water/carbon dioxide splitter is a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) from Ceramatec (maker of the SOEC for NASA's MOXIE), and Ceramatec has asked to be included in the proposal with a budget placeholder as a supplier. Metal purification and steel powder making is done using carbonyl metallurgy techniques developed by BASF with a possible variation to replace steel powder making with metal vapor deposition to shaped steel objects (as previously advocated for by William Jenkins). It should be emphasized that the entire manufacturing chain, and an extended chain than includes 3D metal powder printing to finished steel objects, (i) can be operated by robots (that can also carry out ore mining), and (ii) the robots and equipment needed to carry out this mining and manufacturing chain can be made such that their entire combined total mass is small enough to fit in Mars landing craft payloads well under 2500 kg.
MISR monthly, global 1 x 1 deg grid 'Clim-Likely' aerosol climatology, derived from 'typical-year' aerosol transport model results available in 1999. (MISR_AEROSOL_CLIM)data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:56:47.000Z
MISR monthly, global 1 x 1 deg grid 'Clim-Likely' aerosol climatology, derived from 'typical-year' aerosol transport model results available in 1999.
Atmospheric Composition Ammonia Volume Mixing Ratio L3 (AIRSAC3MNH3 V3) from AIRS/AMSU on NASA Aqua at GES DISCdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-13T00:12:01.000Z
The mass concentration ammonia in the atmosphere, consists of products generated for the study of atmospheric ammonia. Atmospheric ammonia is an important component of the global nitrogen cycle. In the troposphere, ammonia reacts rapidly with acids such as sulfuric and nitric to form fine particulate matter. These ammonium containing aerosols affect Earth's radiative balance, both directly by scattering incoming radiation and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei. Major sources of atmospheric ammonia involve agricultural activities including animal husbandry, especially concentrated animal feeding operations and fertilizer use. Major sinks of atmospheric ammonia involve dry deposition and wet removal by precipitation, as well as conversion to particulate ammonium by reaction with acids. Measurements of ambient NH3 are sparse, but satellites provide a means to monitor atmospheric composition globally. Using the AIRS/AMSU satellite this algorithm provides monthly measurements of derived atmospheric NH3 for September 2002 through August 2016.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:16.000Z
The ERBE-like Footprint TOA Fluxes (ES-8) product contains 24 hours of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument, Flight Model 1 (FM1) on the Terra spacecraft . The ES-8 contains filtered radiances recorded every 0.01-second for the total (TOT), shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW and LW radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes with a scene identification algorithm and Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) which are "like" those used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The TOA fluxes, scene identification, and angular geometry are included on the ES-8. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:01.000Z
The Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The CRS contains all of the CERES SSF product data. For each CERES footprint on the SSF the CRS also contains vertical flux profiles evaluated at four levels in the atmosphere: the surface, 500-, 70-, and 1-hPa. The CRS fluxes and cloud parameters are adjusted for consistency with a radiative transfer model and adjusted fluxes are evaluated at the four atmospheric levels for both clear-sky and total-sky. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-13T00:14:46.000Z
Version 06 is the current version of the data set. Older versions will no longer be available and have been superseded by Version 06. . The precipitation estimates in the 3DPRD product are a subset of those in the full daily 3DPR product; the retrieval estimates are the same. Since this is a subset, the product is smaller, and Level 3 DPR products present the user with summary information over daily and monthly time periods. These gridded products are in a convenient gridded form and can be used easily in comparisons with other satellite and ground data. The Level 3 DPR joint algorithm subsets precipitation estimates from the Level 3 daily products. In addition, it adds time information from Level 2 instantaneous data to give a date/time for the last measurement in each grid box. The product contains one 0.25 x 25 km grid with separate indices for the ascending and descending parts of the GPM orbit.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-03-05T22:47:31.000Z
CAL_LID_L2_05kmALay_Exp-Prov-V3-40 data are CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 5km aerosol layer data. Within the Lidar Aerosol Layer Product there are two general classes of data:- Column Properties (including position data and viewing geometry)- Layer PropertiesThe lidar layer products consist of a sequence of column descriptors, each one of which is associated with a variable number of layer descriptors. The column descriptors specify the temporal and geophysical location of the column of the atmosphere through which a given lidar pulse travels. Also included in the column descriptors are indicators of surface lighting conditions, information about the surface type, and the number of features (e.g., aerosol layers) identified within the column. The science algorithms used to produce the V3.40 CALIOP data products are identical to those used to generate the V3.01 and V3.02 products; however, some of the ancillary data used in the V3.30 analyses is different. All CALIOP data products rely on meteorological data provided by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The V3.01 and V3.02 data products were produced using the GMAO's GEOS 5.2 data products. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. It flies in the international A-Train constellation for coincident Earth observations. The CALIPSO satellite comprises three instruments, the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and the Wide Field Camera (WFC). CALIPSO is a joint satellite mission between NASA and the French Agency, CNES.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:51:00.000Z
The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched on January 10, 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. CATS will provide vertical profiles at three wavelengths, orbiting between ~230 and ~270 miles above the Earth's surface at a 51-degree inclination with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. For the first time, it will allow scientist to study diurnal (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. CATS Level 2 Layer data product containing geophysical parameters derived from Level 1 data, at 60m vertical and 5km horizontal resolution.