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Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase IIdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T02:04:47.000Z
All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180ºC to +130ºC) and high radiation levels. To design low-temperature radiation-hardened (rad-hard) electronics and predict circuit and system characteristics, such as error rates, modeling tools are required at multiple levels. To determine the electrical responses of transistors and circuits to radiation events, physics-based Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) and mixed-level tools are required. This project will provide models and tools that will improve capabilities for prediction of technology-dependent responses to radiation in wide temperature range, which will lead to better design of rad-hard electronics, better anticipation of design margins, and reduction of testing cost and time. Future NASA missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and circuits are viewed. Nano-scale electronic device responses are strongly related to the microstructure of the radiation event. This requires a more detailed physics-based modeling approach, which will provide information for higher-level engineering models used in integrated circuit (IC) and system design. Hence, the proposed innovation: detailed high-energy-physics-based simulations of radiation events (using MRED/Geant4 software from Vanderbilt University) efficiently integrated with advanced device/circuit response computations by CFDRC NanoTCAD three-dimensional (3D) mixed-level simulator. This will also enable a large number of statistically meaningful runs on a massively parallel supercomputing cluster. The extreme low temperature physics models combined with radiation effects will be validated with the help of consultant, Dr. John Cressler (Georgia Tech), in collaboration with the NASA Extreme Environment Electronics program, and serving the NASA RHESE Program (led by NASA-MSFC).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:56:52.000Z
Future small-spacecraft thermal engineers and integrators will contend with increasing spacecraft power and temperature variations resulting from challenging new missions in extreme environments. The LoadPath High heat flux Enhanced Acquisition and Transport system for Small spacecraft (HEATS) is an innovative, passive, two-phase thermal transport system that will help realize these missions of tomorrow. Unlike state-of-the-art thermal transport systems (e.g. heat pipes and loop heat pipes), our approach can mitigate higher heat loads and fluxes at a lower cost and mass while adapting to a wider-range of heat source/sink configurations.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:53:39.000Z
NASA has a need for process technologies that enable life support loop closure for manned exploration missions beyond earth's atmosphere. A critical component in life support loop closure is the removal of carbon dioxide (produced by the crew) from the cabin atmosphere. An attractive approach for removal of carbon dioxide is the Bosch reaction, where carbon dioxide is reacted with hydrogen (produced from water electrolysis) to produce solid elemental carbon and water. However, no technology currently exists for the continuous operation of a Bosch reactor. The process cannot be run in a continuous manner because of degradation of the catalysts, which are required to precipitate carbon at a reasonable rate. In this Phase I SBIR, PH Matter, LLC will develop a catalyst for the continuous formation of carbon in a system fed with carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Researchers will demonstrate continuous operation of the catalyst in Phase II. Based on the catalyst performance, a reactor will be designed to allow continuous carbon formation without the need for regular maintenance.
- API healthdata.gov | Last Updated 2021-03-12T23:18:16.000Z
The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it is fairly large (125MB in CSV). The POS Extract is created from the QIES (Quality Improvement Evaluation System) database. These data include provider number, name, and address and characterize the participating institutional providers. The data are collected through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Regional Offices. The file contains an individual record for each Medicare-approved provider and is updated quarterly. For a list of provider types, layout files, and how to order previous annual files, please see the Source Link in the About tab.
High Temperature, Radiation Hard Electronics Architecture for a Chemical Sensor Suite for Venus Atmospheric Measurements, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:59:55.000Z
Makel Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a high temperature, radiation hard electronics sensing architecture for a high temperature chemical sensor array suitable for measuring key chemical species in the Venus atmosphere. The previously developed Venus Microsensor Chemical Array (VMCA) consists of sensing elements which can operate in a 500 C environment, but which currently rely on silicon based electronics for signal acquisition, control and data transmission, which requires active cooling for a Venus mission deployment. NASA GRC has demonstrated simple SiC electronic circuits, such as differential amplifiers and logic gates that were packaged and operated for a world-record of thousands of hours at 500 C. Ongoing work at NASA, universities, and industry is increasing the complexity and capability of SiC devices. This proposal aims to develop electronics designs and architecture to enable NASA's high temperature SiC electronics to be applied to the VCMA to form a science instrument suitable for a future Venus mission. Phase I will develop innovative designs using near term SiC components to provide transduction and signal processing needed to operate the VMCA without active cooling. Phase I designs will be demonstrated in hardware using silicon versions of electronics components which are achievable in SiC. This process is the key first step in applying emerging development of SiC electronics to a harsh environment chemical sensing need. Phase II will focus on implementation of the SiC electronics design utilizing the best available SiC components.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:44:19.000Z
In response to the development of components to advance the maturity of science instruments focused on the detection of evidence of life in the Ocean Worlds, Q-Peak proposes to develop a compact, robust, efficient, and radiation hardened UV laser capable of detecting organic molecules by means of the laser desorption technique. When slightly modified, the laser can be used to advance the development of instruments suitable for deployment on in-situ planetary and lunar missions such as ExoMars and Mars 2020 to analyze mineral composition of rock samples by performing imaging/Laser-Raman/Laser-Induced-Breakdown spectroscopies. The advantage in using these techniques for planetary science is the ability to rapidly collect a wealth of chemical information, by directing a laser beam on target of interest. In Phase I, Q-Peak proposes the development of an ultra-compact, passively Q-switched laser, < 10 cm3 in volume that will produce 0.1-0.3 mJ energy, < 2 ns, 266-nm pulses at 5 kHz repetition rates. This laser will be designed to survive shock, vibration, thermal cycling, and radiation. In order to make a very compact laser, Q Peak will use diode pumped solid state laser technology to produce 1-2 mJ of energy at 1064 nm using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber as the passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for a high voltage supply which is required for actively Q-switched lasers. The output of the laser will be frequency converted in two stages to produce 266 nm via nonlinear crystals specifically selected to survive a high radiation environment. Compact electronics will also be designed from radiation hardened components. In Phase II program, specially designed optical components will be procured to make the laser very compact and alignment insensitive; for example, bonded nonlinear crystals to minimize wavelength walk-off and maximize nonlinear conversion efficiency. The laser will be subjected to representative environmental condition to bring the TRL to 6.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:56:56.000Z
We have completed our grant reporting period. The major contributions of our research effort are outlined below: Specific Aim 1: Statistical Shoulder Injury Analysis. The first specific aim is to analyze data for correlations between anthropometry, space suit components, and shoulder injury. Four hypotheses were proposed to relate injury to 1) body morphologies, 2) space suit HUT components, 3) training variables, and 4) previous injury. Each hypothesis was confirmed, since for both models variables for each of the first three hypotheses were identified and record of previous injury was associated with the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) model. The major contributions of this work are to: 1) Add quantitative statistical analysis to the causal mechanisms of injury found in the literature. 2) Provide a framework for identifying relevant predictor variables related to injury given the small number of data points, large number of predictor variables, and the differences in their distributions. 3) Identify variables related to injury which can be addressed and resolved through operational changes to training, suit design and accommodation, and identification of higher risk subjects given previous medical history. 4) Propose future areas of study for which additional data may continue to be collected and analyzed, such as HUT sizing information as related to clearance anthropometry. These contributions address the current gap in our understanding of the causal mechanisms of injury. Although HUT style has been reported as a major cause based on anecdotal evidence (Williams and Johnson 2003, Strauss 2004), it has not been until recently that this causal mechanism has been quantitatively evaluated (Scheuring, McCullouch et al., 2012). This research corroborates these findings, but expands upon them to include additional relevant factors not previously explored. It also includes other shoulder incidents, which, although not defined as medical injuries, have had negative impact on crew comfort and health, as well as impacting an astronaut’s operational availability. This work also supports the conclusions reached by Williams and Johnson (2003) regarding the import of the training environment as a contributory factor, but this is the first quantitative assessment of the impacts of training frequency and recovery. Finally, it supports that suit fit is essential to achieve the optimal working environment (Benson and Rajulu 2009, Gast and Moore 2010) and allows future designs to pinpoint the most relevant anthropometric dimensions for suit fit accommodation. This work provides a quantitative analysis through data mining grounded in our historical understanding of the use of the EMU and NBL training environment. The remainder of this research allows a look forward into how additional data collection on human-space suit interaction can help prevent the occurrence of future injury and discomfort. Specific Aim 2: Experimental Evaluation of Human-space Suit Interaction. Development of a wearable pressure sensing garment. The novel Polipo low-pressure sensing system for extreme environments achieved here has many advantages. With the Polipo human-suit interaction can be measured for the first time through dynamic movement. It can accurately measure low-pressures against the body over underneath the soft-goods. The system of 12 sensors is transferrable between many different people, creating an independent stand-alone pressure-sensing system. Sensors can easily be changed to allow for improved designs or to accommodate different target pressures. The wiring was intentionally designed to achieve the best trade-off between flexibility, resistance, and stretch ability. The system achieves near shirt-sleeve mobility as sensors are moved to accommodate users. It can also be used in conjunction with a high-pressure sensing mat placed over the shoulder to measure loading between the person and HUT. The electronics architect
- API healthdata.gov | Last Updated 2021-03-12T23:00:31.000Z
<p>The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, received since January 1990 through last month. Data are available by symptom, vaccine product, manufacturer, onset interval, outcome category, year and month vaccinated, year and month reported, age, sex and state / territory. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a cooperative program for vaccine safety of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VAERS is a post-marketing safety surveillance program, collecting information about adverse events (possible side effects) that occur after the administration of US licensed vaccines. Data are from the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/ Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).</p>
- API data.colorado.gov | Last Updated 2016-08-19T17:14:38.000Z
Monthly Oil Price Index FY 2008-2009 as reported by the Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission
- API data.colorado.gov | Last Updated 2015-08-17T17:04:15.000Z
Executive Summary 81008 2013