- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:11.000Z
The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for both the Terra and Aqua satellite using measurements from the primary crosstrack instrument. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is "like" the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:51:35.000Z
<p>Advancements in design and development of evaluation methodologies were made in transient thermal testing. Development of multifunctional and thermally switchable systems to address reduced mass and components, and tailored for both structural and transient thermal applications. Active, passive, and novel combinations of the two functional approaches are being developed along two lines of research investigation: switchable systems and transient heat spreading. The approach was to build in thermal functionality to structural elements to lay the foundation for a revolution in the way high energy space systems are designed.</p> <p>The research team took a fully collaborative approach with NASA, the University of Central Florida, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, and a global research commercial partner on the development and application of novel materials. Information gained in this study will be leveraged to propose future funding to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) for extreme conditions applications.</p><p>The three materials research tasks and associated partners that were explored during this project are summarized as follows:</p><ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li>Two-way Shape Memory Alloys systems with University of Central Florida and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC)</li><li>Gradient Cellular solids with Embry Riddle Aeronautical University</li><li>Tunable composites/laminates with NASA-GRC</li></ol>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:58:54.000Z
In response to the development of components to advance the maturity of science instruments focused on the detection of evidence of life in the Ocean Worlds, Q-Peak proposes to develop a compact, robust, efficient, and radiation hardened UV laser capable of detecting organic molecules by means of the laser desorption technique. When slightly modified, the laser can be used to advance the development of instruments suitable for deployment on in-situ planetary and lunar missions such as ExoMars and Mars 2020 to analyze mineral composition of rock samples by performing imaging/Laser-Raman/Laser-Induced-Breakdown spectroscopies. The advantage in using these techniques for planetary science is the ability to rapidly collect a wealth of chemical information, by directing a laser beam on target of interest. In Phase I, Q-Peak proposes the development of an ultra-compact, passively Q-switched laser, < 10 cm3 in volume that will produce 0.1-0.3 mJ energy, < 2 ns, 266-nm pulses at 5 kHz repetition rates. This laser will be designed to survive shock, vibration, thermal cycling, and radiation. In order to make a very compact laser, Q Peak will use diode pumped solid state laser technology to produce 1-2 mJ of energy at 1064 nm using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber as the passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for a high voltage supply which is required for actively Q-switched lasers. The output of the laser will be frequency converted in two stages to produce 266 nm via nonlinear crystals specifically selected to survive a high radiation environment. Compact electronics will also be designed from radiation hardened components. In Phase II program, specially designed optical components will be procured to make the laser very compact and alignment insensitive; for example, bonded nonlinear crystals to minimize wavelength walk-off and maximize nonlinear conversion efficiency. The laser will be subjected to representative environmental condition to bring the TRL to 6.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:47:54.000Z
Enabling a new generation of high speed civil aircraft will require breakthrough developments in propulsion design, including novel techniques to optimize inlet performance across a wide speed range. Maximizing propulsive performance while minimizing weight and mechanical complexity is a key goal for such systems, and rapidly maturing smart materials technology can enable adaptive control of inlet geometry to allow in-flight optimization of engine flows. This proposal will build on established device technology using high strength Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators and will initiate development of adaptive inlets for high speed applications. Leveraging prior work in design and testing of SMA devices in challenging aerospace and marine applications will allow a jump start in development a family of actuation and flow control devices suitable for use in practical flight applications. Actuation systems employing a combination of high temperature SMA alloys and active heat control systems will be developed, along with complementary analysis and design tools for aero/thermo analysis of integrated actuators. The modeling and benchtop testing work proposed for Phase I will lay the groundwork for testing in representative high speed conditions in Phase II.
NASA Financial Budget Documents, Strategic Plans and Performance Reports 2016: NASA Budget Fact Sheetdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:10:56.000Z
NASA Financial Budget Documents, Strategic Plans and Performance Reports for fiscal year 2016.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:47:13.000Z
Future robotic missions to Venus require actuators for powering robotic arms, sampling systems, and gimbals for the positioning of cameras and antennas. There are many types of actuators (e.g. pneumatic, hydraulic); however electric actuators offer the greatest versatility for space missions. An electric actuator consists of an electric motor and a position sensor. The electric motor converts electrical energy (electricity) into mechanical output (shaft rotation). The position sensor, on the other hand, determines the angular position of the motor shaft, which then is processed by drive electronics to commutate and control the motor. Because of the extreme conditions on the Venus surface (92 bar pressure, 462 °C temperature, and supercritical CO2 atmosphere), conventional actuators will not be able to function properly, or at all. The main challenges pertain to changes in electrical properties like an increase in wire resistance (leading to greater losses), changes in magnetic properties like permeability and retentivity (leading to demagnetization of magnets), and changes in physical properties such as linear expansion, decrease in strength, increase in friction, and accelerated oxidation. Since 2007, Honeybee and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been developing Venus actuator technologies. We developed a 48V Brushless DC motor (BLDC) and custom position sensor called the Pulsed Injection Position Sensor (PIPS) for motor commutation and feedback control. The motor and PIPS are at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5. The main objective of the proposed work is to mature the Venus actuator technology through an iterative process of Venus chamber testing of a TRL5 actuator, followed by re-design and fabrication of a TRL6 actuator and subsequent Venus chamber qualification testing of that actuator. The critical objectives to be met are as follows: 1. Design of a motor with 28V windings (28 V is a conventional spacecraft power bus), 2. Increase PIPS resolution from 12 to 48 counts/rev (this will make motor more efficient and allow actuator to be used for precision positioning systems – robotic arms and gimbals), 3. Establish reproducible procedures, standards, and guidelines for fabricating, assembly, test, and inspection of Venus actuators (currently actuators are hand crafted by selected engineers – this knowledge needs to be captured so that any skilled person will be able to fabricate Venus actuator whenever needed). Technical approach: This effort will be achieved in one year period to enable technology infusion into the New Frontiers (NF) Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) mission. Specific tasks are: Step 1 (Months 1-3): we will characterize performance of the TRL5 actuator under Venus conditions in JPL’s Venus Materials Test Facility (VMTF) chamber. We will connect two existing TRL5 BLDC actuators: one will act as a brake to enable characterization of the second actuator. The actuator will be run until failure in order to assess failure condition. Step 2 (Months 4-9): we will incorporate lessons from Step 1 to design and fabricate three 28V actuators. We will develop procedures and standards for fabrication, inspection and testing. Step 3 (Months 10-12): we will perform the same tests as in Step 1 to characterize performance of the 28V actuators. At this point, it is assumed that we will be able to fabricate identical TRL 6 actuators by following manufacturing process developed in Step 2. Significance of the work to the solicitation: HOTTech supports development of electrical technologies (such as our proposed electric actuator) for the robotic exploration of Venus surfaces. Our electrical actuator will enable Venus missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers (Venus In Situ Explorer), and Flagship (Venus Mobile Explorer) class. Per HOTTech, our actuator also has terrestrial applications in the Geothermal, Oil and Gas, and Aeronautical industries.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:50:08.000Z
This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting Venus exploration missions. The proposed battery will be built upon a tubular, alkali metal ion-conducting, highly refractor, beta"-alumina-solid-electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between an alkali metal anode and a metal salt cathode. In Phase I, BASE tubes possessing high strength, highly conductive, and high resistance to moisture and carbon dioxide attack will be fabricated and optimized using a novel coupled-transport process. Upon assembly with suitable electrochemical couples, battery cells will be tested and evaluated in a temperature range from 450ºC to 600ºC, followed by performance optimization.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:56:25.000Z
Many of the most challenging categories of propulsion system development are related to the prediction of interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and the structural deflection. In practice, the interactions between technical disciplines are often not fully explored analytically, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. A typical design practice might involve predicting the fluid and thermal loads for various conditions and passing those estimates along for inclusion with the structural model. This practice ignores the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis can be heavily dependent on the inputs (i.e., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). Such a rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. In this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) proposes to extend two existing software tools to develop a design environment with both breadth (to cover multiple disciplines) and depth (to cover multiple levels of fidelity).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:27:34.000Z
Resident of a smart home, who may be an old person or an Alzheimer patient needing permanent assistance, actuates the world by realizing activities, which are observed through the embedded sensors of smart home. Typically, this person may sometimes forget completion of the activities; may realize the activities of daily living incorrectly, and may enter to dangerous states. In order to provide automatic assistance for the smart home resident through the embedded electronically controllable actuators and make the smart home resident able to live independently at home we propose to calculate a possibilistic logical space for correct realization of activities, which may be represented in form of a multivariable problem. Regardless from the physical entity (modality and location) of the intelligence source and the quantity of individuals who perform the activities; per each possible goal or activity, we consider a unique source of intelligence (for example a social mind) who directs the order of fuzzy events that occur in the ambient environment, then the plan behind world actuations is modeled applying extensions of the fuzzy logic. The main key point that we deal with is the analysis of the observations in order to make inferences about possible simultaneous activities that may be planned and realized by one or more individuals; so that we can reason in the cases the parallel activities are interrupted.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T10:29:30.000Z
The 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge seeks to develop the fundamental technologies necessary to manufacture habitats using indigenous materials, including recycled materials. The long-term vision is that habitat-manufacturing machines could someday be deployed for the Moon, Mars or beyond to autonomously prepare shelters for humans. The Design Competition is an architectural design activity which invites participants to design a habitat which utilizes additive construction advantages over traditional construction.