- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:59:06.000Z
The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique features in two (2) important areas. The first is in the development of a new sensor type, a strain gauge that is based on OFC techniques and implemented with the low loss characteristics of SAW Unidirectional transducers. The second is in the design of an integrated interrogator system that has DSP-based embedded signal processing. Interrogator will also be capable of rapidly performing multiple interrogations which can them be used to make ibration measurements or averaged to extend the operational range of the system. This proposal extends the Phase I and previous work in two major areas; developing a SAW strain sensor, and dramatically increasing interrogation range, which is applicable to both the new strain sensors and the previously developed temperature sensors. In order to increase SAW sensor range, sensitivity and accuracy, the most important device parameters were identified and initial investigation begun in Phase I and will be put into practice in Phase II. To reduce SAW sensor loss and minimize multi-transit acoustic echoes, low loss unidirectional studies were initiated. Phase I produced three alternative low-loss approaches that will be evaluated in the Phase II work. Success will lower the insertion loss by approximately 15 dB, and multi-transit echoes are predicted to be less than -40 dB from the main signal; doubling the system range and reducing the sensors self-noise. Advanced coding techniques were investigated in Phase I that have led to longer delay path lengths, and shorter codes with less inter-sensor interference. During Phase II, the interrogator will improve the following critical capabilities: onboard-fully-integrated DSP, extended connectivity options to customer's computer, and rapid interrogation capabilities. This will allow vibration sensing and signal integration.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T01:50:36.000Z
This space technology research effort will develop photonic integrated circuit technology for deep space laser communications. Photonic integration is a method to integrate several photonic functions on a chip in a manner similar to integrating transistors in an electronic integrated circuit. Current space laser transmitters are assembled with discrete components, which is a cumbersome and costly process. Light is coupled to and from each component through fiber couplers, which introduce optical losses and potential failure points. Photonic integration eliminates these coupling elements by interconnecting components on chip while also significantly reducing the size, weight, and power of the laser transmitter. With this technology, entire laser transmitter systems can be realized on a single chip. The HELIOS project will evaluate the potential impact of applying photonic integration to deep space laser transmitters, and establish target specifications by working closely with flight transmitter experts at MIT Lincoln Laboratory and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A library of high-performance photonic building blocks will then be developed. The vision is that system architects will eventually leverage this library to design integrated flight transmitters in a straightforward manner using circuit simulation and design tools. The library will contain fundamental building blocks such as lasers, optical modulators, and optical amplifiers, as well as blocks for performance monitoring including optical taps and photodetectors. Designers will be afforded the flexibility to configure devices for specific modulation formats, and customize laser designs for required output power levels. As such, HELIOS will innovate space exploration by providing a more compact, lower cost, more reliable, and higher performance solution for high data rate deep space laser communications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:17:08.000Z
We propose to develop a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept with the following innovative features: 1. Independent, mini burning zones created by containing the flame in a cylinder downstream of each fuel injector/swirler element in a multiple fuel injector array, see figure 1. The independent burning zones will enable fuel staging the fuel injectors (turning off fuel to selected fuel injectors) to cover the operating cycle, such that at each point of the operating cycle the combustor will have high combustion efficiency (>99%) and low NOx emissions. At high power conditions the combustion efficiency should be greater than 99.9%. 2. A low flow number, "Butterfly" fuel injector will be incorporated into ME-LDI that is low cost and simple to manufacture but a highly effective atomizer. The term "Butterfly" derives from the butterfly shape of the spray. The shape of the spray is formed by two diametrically opposed slots cut through a closed end fuel tube, see figure 2. The fuel flow through each slot forms a fan spray. The slot width can be varied to control drop-sizes within the spray.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:35:39.000Z
We have invented a new class of robotics, called `Pneubotics', that rival current manipulators in payload and reach at 1/10th the weight. Our technology leverages insights into lightweight materials and mass manufacturing to create robots that derive power, structure, and movement from pressurized air. As a result, drive trains, motors, bearings, shafts, sliding surfaces, and excess structural material are eliminated, leading to robots with extremely high strength to weight ratios, inherently human safe operation, and high degrees of freedom at low part count. This transformative new technology has the potential to enable the widespread use of automated handling of material and equipment on missions in low Earth orbit and beyond. The compliant nature of these robotic systems allows them to robustly grasp arbitrarily shaped objects and makes them ideal for operating around sensitive equipment and materials or cooperatively with humans. Similarly, due to their fluidic architecture they can be deflated and stowed for efficient transport. The work described in this phase II SBIR proposal would integrate the component development and analysis performed in Phase I to build and test a full prototype manipulation system. By incorporating optical, internal, and tactile sensors and multi-level controls that take advantage of the unique characteristics of the manipulator and seek out appropriate contact to guide motion rather than avoiding it. By testing the entire prototype system in the field we will demonstrate operation in the ground environment and learn valuable lessons for IVA and EVA applications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:29:24.000Z
Topic S1.10 of NASA 2015 SBIR solicitation calls for "Low current superconducting magnets (3-4 Tesla at temperatures > 15K". This proposal is a response to the technological challenge of design and manufacture of such superconducting magnets. Considering the inherent properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS), design and construction of multi-stage ADRs providing cooling from about 70K to less than 15K appears as feasible. If a multistage ADR system could reject its heat at about 30K or above, the approach of passive radiative cooling can come into serious consideration whereby mechanical cryocoolers can be totally removed from the overall cooling system. We propose to produce a comprehensive design and build a demo partially shielded 3 T HTS ADR magnet. In this project our technical objectives will be: 1. Maximizes the current density of HTS coils 2. Study and resolve quench protection and coil-to-coil quench propagation 3. Optimize the coil dimensions for maximum heat lift 4. Study the effect of the enclosing iron to find the optimum thickness of iron, and its location 5. Build and test a demo 3T HTS ADR magnet operating at 30-40 K
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:55:43.000Z
For this project Superior Graphite Co. (Chicago, IL, USA), the leading worldwide industrial carbon manufacturer and the only large scale battery grade graphitic carbon producer in the USA, will develop, explore the properties of, and demonstrate the enhanced capabilities of novel nanostructured SiLix-C anodes, capable of retaining high capacity at a rapid 2 hour discharge rate and at 0oC when used in Li-ion batteries. By thye end of Phase I we have demonstrated advanced anode materials with the specific capacity in excess of 1000 mAh/g, minimal irreversible capacity losses and stable performance for 20 cycles at C/1. We are confident that by the developing and applying a variety of novel nano-materials technologies, fine-tuning the properties of composite particles at the nanoscale, optimizing the composition of the anodes, and choosing appropriate binder and electrolytes we will be able to revolutionize Li-ion battery technology. In order to achieve such a breakthrough in power characteristics of Li-ion batteries, the team will develop new nanostructured SiLix-C anode materials to offer up to 1200 mAh/g at C/2 at 0oC and a long cycle life with less than 20% fading when cycled for 2000 cycles at C/2 at 0oC
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:23:47.000Z
High resolution spectroscopy with thermal detectors shows great promise for making astrophysical discoveries across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to gamma-rays. These investigations are critical to advancing our understanding of many astrophysical problems related to investigating the structure and evolution of the universe and the origins of the elements, all fundamental NASA goals. Transition Edge Sensor microcalorimeters and bolometers have been highly successful in ground and balloon-based experiments, and technology development is underway to take the next step and operate a TES array in space. Transition Edge Sensors are a versatile and still-developing technology, with applications ranging from astrophysical investigations like the cosmic microwave background and X-ray spectroscopy to potential industrial applications like compact, high resolution X-ray microanalysis instruments. The goal of my investigation is to develop transition edge sensor technology that can be used for a new space-based application, the study of the diffuse soft x-ray background. Diffuse background studies make stringent demands on many different aspects of detector design. Therefore, the new TES technology developed in such an investigation can benefit a variety of applications. With this in mind, my research plan includes learning about space hardware and instrumentation by preparing for a sounding rocket flight that will obtain a high resolution spectrum of the soft X-ray background with a thermistor microcalorimeter array. This will help me build a solid background in instrument science, which I will apply to overcoming the technical challenges associated with building a large-area high energy resolution array of transition edge sensors needed to study the diffuse background.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T04:58:46.000Z
Upcoming NASA Earth and Space Science missions as well as planetary exploration missions will require improvements in particle and field sensors and associated instrument technologies. Technology developments are needed that result in expanded measurement capabilities and a reduction in size, mass, power, and cost. To that end, NASA has become increasingly interested in the use of small spacecraft platforms such as CubeSats. Many of the sensors required for measurement of an electric field are extremely sensitive to fields created by the spacecraft electronics and therefore must be positioned on orbit at a significant distance from the spacecraft. This presents major challenges for the accommodation of this type of instrument on a CubeSat platform. In particular, several miniaturized booms must be stowed in a very small volume for launch and must have sufficient deployed properties to allow for high pointing accuracy, adequate deployed stiffness and thermal stability on orbit. In the proposed effort, Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will collaborate to provide an electric field instrument containing miniaturized sensor electronics and thermally stable, compactly stowed and structurally rigid graphite composite booms to measure electric fields effectively on a low-cost CubeSat platform.
OMI/Aura Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMNO2) at GES DISCdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-13T00:25:01.000Z
The Version 3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Standard Product (OMNO2) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. The major improvements include: (1) an improved spectral fitting algorithm for retrieving slant column densities, including the use of monthly mean solar spectral irradiances; (2) improved resolution (1 degree latitude and 1.25 degree longitude) a priori NO2 profiles from Global Modeling Initiative chemistry-transport model with yearly varying emissions. The improvements are described in the updated OMNO2 readme document (see Documentation). The OMNO2 contains slant column NO2 (total amount along the average optical path from the sun into the atmosphere, and then toward the satellite), the total NO2 vertical column density (VCD), the stratospheric and tropospheric VCDs, scattering weights, cloud radiative fraction and optical centroid pressure, and other ancillary data. The short name for this Level-2 OMI total column NO2 product is OMNO2. The algorithm leads for this product are NASA OMI scientist Dr. Nickolay A. Krotkov and KNMI Scientist Dr. Pepijn J. Veefkind. The OMNO2 files are stored in the version 5 EOS Hierarchical Data Format (HDF-EOS5). Each file contains data from the day lit portion of an orbit (~53 minutes). There are approximately 14 orbits per day. The maximum file size for the OMNO2 is ~23 MB.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2020-01-29T03:14:12.000Z
<p>We propose to enhance GSFC’s interplanetary mission design capability by designing a fully automated multi-spacecraft multi-objective interplanetary global trajectory optimization transcription. Advanced trajectory design technologies including the ability to design Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSMs) are attracting increased interest but no mission design tool is currently capable of performing mission and systems design/optimization for an interplanetary DSM. This effort will deliver a software prototype capable of building the optimal design of a DSM-class mission where multiple spacecraft depart to the heliocentric regime from the same launch vehicle to perform coordinated science. This new capability will lay the groundwork for a follow-on proposal to implement this new capability into NASA Goddard's Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) where it will enable new announcements of opportunity for Distributed Spacecraft Missions.</p>