- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-12-12T23:52:11.000Z
The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for both the Terra and Aqua satellite using measurements from the primary crosstrack instrument. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is "like" the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. CERES is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997 as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002. The newest CERES instrument (FM5) was launched on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite on October 28, 2011.
NASA Financial Budget Documents, Strategic Plans and Performance Reports 2016: NASA Budget Fact Sheetdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:10:56.000Z
NASA Financial Budget Documents, Strategic Plans and Performance Reports for fiscal year 2016.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:47:13.000Z
Future robotic missions to Venus require actuators for powering robotic arms, sampling systems, and gimbals for the positioning of cameras and antennas. There are many types of actuators (e.g. pneumatic, hydraulic); however electric actuators offer the greatest versatility for space missions. An electric actuator consists of an electric motor and a position sensor. The electric motor converts electrical energy (electricity) into mechanical output (shaft rotation). The position sensor, on the other hand, determines the angular position of the motor shaft, which then is processed by drive electronics to commutate and control the motor. Because of the extreme conditions on the Venus surface (92 bar pressure, 462 °C temperature, and supercritical CO2 atmosphere), conventional actuators will not be able to function properly, or at all. The main challenges pertain to changes in electrical properties like an increase in wire resistance (leading to greater losses), changes in magnetic properties like permeability and retentivity (leading to demagnetization of magnets), and changes in physical properties such as linear expansion, decrease in strength, increase in friction, and accelerated oxidation. Since 2007, Honeybee and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been developing Venus actuator technologies. We developed a 48V Brushless DC motor (BLDC) and custom position sensor called the Pulsed Injection Position Sensor (PIPS) for motor commutation and feedback control. The motor and PIPS are at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5. The main objective of the proposed work is to mature the Venus actuator technology through an iterative process of Venus chamber testing of a TRL5 actuator, followed by re-design and fabrication of a TRL6 actuator and subsequent Venus chamber qualification testing of that actuator. The critical objectives to be met are as follows: 1. Design of a motor with 28V windings (28 V is a conventional spacecraft power bus), 2. Increase PIPS resolution from 12 to 48 counts/rev (this will make motor more efficient and allow actuator to be used for precision positioning systems – robotic arms and gimbals), 3. Establish reproducible procedures, standards, and guidelines for fabricating, assembly, test, and inspection of Venus actuators (currently actuators are hand crafted by selected engineers – this knowledge needs to be captured so that any skilled person will be able to fabricate Venus actuator whenever needed). Technical approach: This effort will be achieved in one year period to enable technology infusion into the New Frontiers (NF) Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) mission. Specific tasks are: Step 1 (Months 1-3): we will characterize performance of the TRL5 actuator under Venus conditions in JPL’s Venus Materials Test Facility (VMTF) chamber. We will connect two existing TRL5 BLDC actuators: one will act as a brake to enable characterization of the second actuator. The actuator will be run until failure in order to assess failure condition. Step 2 (Months 4-9): we will incorporate lessons from Step 1 to design and fabricate three 28V actuators. We will develop procedures and standards for fabrication, inspection and testing. Step 3 (Months 10-12): we will perform the same tests as in Step 1 to characterize performance of the 28V actuators. At this point, it is assumed that we will be able to fabricate identical TRL 6 actuators by following manufacturing process developed in Step 2. Significance of the work to the solicitation: HOTTech supports development of electrical technologies (such as our proposed electric actuator) for the robotic exploration of Venus surfaces. Our electrical actuator will enable Venus missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers (Venus In Situ Explorer), and Flagship (Venus Mobile Explorer) class. Per HOTTech, our actuator also has terrestrial applications in the Geothermal, Oil and Gas, and Aeronautical industries.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:56:25.000Z
Many of the most challenging categories of propulsion system development are related to the prediction of interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and the structural deflection. In practice, the interactions between technical disciplines are often not fully explored analytically, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. A typical design practice might involve predicting the fluid and thermal loads for various conditions and passing those estimates along for inclusion with the structural model. This practice ignores the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis can be heavily dependent on the inputs (i.e., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). Such a rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. In this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) proposes to extend two existing software tools to develop a design environment with both breadth (to cover multiple disciplines) and depth (to cover multiple levels of fidelity).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:27:34.000Z
Resident of a smart home, who may be an old person or an Alzheimer patient needing permanent assistance, actuates the world by realizing activities, which are observed through the embedded sensors of smart home. Typically, this person may sometimes forget completion of the activities; may realize the activities of daily living incorrectly, and may enter to dangerous states. In order to provide automatic assistance for the smart home resident through the embedded electronically controllable actuators and make the smart home resident able to live independently at home we propose to calculate a possibilistic logical space for correct realization of activities, which may be represented in form of a multivariable problem. Regardless from the physical entity (modality and location) of the intelligence source and the quantity of individuals who perform the activities; per each possible goal or activity, we consider a unique source of intelligence (for example a social mind) who directs the order of fuzzy events that occur in the ambient environment, then the plan behind world actuations is modeled applying extensions of the fuzzy logic. The main key point that we deal with is the analysis of the observations in order to make inferences about possible simultaneous activities that may be planned and realized by one or more individuals; so that we can reason in the cases the parallel activities are interrupted.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:46:54.000Z
Scientific/Technical/Management Science Goals and Objectives: A major goal of the NASA planetary space program has been the search for life in our solar system. On Mars, this effort has been focused on the successful search for water and habitability. The next step will be searching specific locations for signs of past life. One of the most promising places are the hydrothermal sinter deposits in the Nili Patera caldera of the Syrtis Major volcano. These deposits would have been long-lived, with the suitable environmental conditions and provide a well-mapped feature for a targeted mission. To prepare for this type of mission, we propose a series of experiments and field operations to develop the required methodologies. Operating at an extinct hot spring deposit in a Martian analog and extreme life environment in Iceland, we will collect samples and in-situ measurements to determine the resolutions and data sets required to answer the key mission objectives. We will also test trafficability to determine the spacecraft capabilities required for mission success. The proposed advancements break down into the categories of Science, Science Operations and Technology. Science objectives will focus building on the extensive set of terrestrial literature to answer questions specific to this mission. For example, how do we identify all potential signs of life preserved in the sinters and how to sinters record signs of environmental and volcanic properties. Specific to this proposal will be to understand what spacecraft instruments will be required to answer these questions. Science Operations will focus on the suite of instruments needed to operate together to answer the mission goals and what type of samples and mobility will be required for success. The Technology section will be to develop the methods to meet the requirements determined by the science effort. This includes sample collection and handling methodology and determining a plan to develop currently available field instruments into planetary capable versions. Methodology: Dr. Skok will lead a diverse team of hydrothermal, biological and instrumental experts to study a comparable hot spring deposit in Iceland to examine all the potential mission issues and scenarios, along with sample requirements. A combination of lab analysis of collected samples and in-situ deployment of field instruments will be used to prepare for this future mission. Relevance to Planetary Science and Technology Through Analog Research: This proposal meets the stated PSTAR goal of funding projects to planetary analog sites to develop the technologies and methodologies required for future missions, especially to extreme environments. Hot spring environments are key habitats on Earth and provide a planetary independent energy source and habitable zone.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:20:12.000Z
The use of automated robotic tooling is required in a number of space missions. It is possible to have better tool control if the robotic arm could report loads experienced by the tooling.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:40:02.000Z
Integrated photonics can greatly reduce the size, weight and power of transceivers for space optical communications while improving performance and reliability. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) combine photonic functions on a single chip. By employing CMOS-compatible PIC technology to realize high data rate space optical communication transceivers, we can leverage the manufacturing technology developed for the microelectronics industry and co-integrate electronics and photonics.
Development of Diamond Vacuum Differential Amplifier for Harsh Environment Power Electronics, Phase IIdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:58:29.000Z
In this proposed Phase II, Scientic and Vanderbilt University will develop a novel vacuum field emission differential amplifier (VFEDA) using low electron affinity nanodiamond (ND) material as electron emitters for high-power electronic application in harsh environments. The ND-VFEDA is a fundamental circuit building block for vacuum integrated circuits (VICs) ideally suited for high radiation and space applications. The proposed high-power ND-VFEDA will be capable of operating over a wide-temperature range (-125˚C to 450˚C), possess tolerance to extreme doses of ionizing radiation and deliver the long-term reliability and stability needed to successfully execute environmentally stressful space science missions.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:47:24.000Z
<p>In response to several instances of flight hardware being dropped during shipment with expensive hits to cost and schedule, a methodology to normalize foam data was proposed, developed into an algorithm and implemented as an excel based foam design tool. Commonly foam curves are developed from thousands of drop tests. This algorithm allows the same results to be obtained from about 100 tests, reducing cost of testing foams. This preliminary tool has passed peer review at JSC Engineering and received acclaim. JSC Innovation Charge Account funding was used to refine the tool to obtain higher accuracy by improving the math and conducting additional testing to expand the math to include foam sandwiches. These improvements to the tool help reduce the amount of foam required allowing the package to be more compact, and reduce the need to ship in ground foam then repackage in flight foam at the launch site. This will result in cost saving, schedule compression and reduced risk to hardware.<p/><p>Develop an algorithm to model foam compression during impact and implement as an easy to use excel based shipping foam design tool. Refine methodology of calculating foam compression using the innovative Stress-Energy testing method which drastically increases flexibility of data collected by normalizing data with respect to drop height and foam volume. Foam compression is critical in cases where a protrusion exists which should not contact the bottom of the container. There are benefits of using multiple foam types or sandwiched foam packaging. Tests were conducted to confirm the theory for how to combine foams as well as add the function to the existing tool. Calculations for sandwiched foams along with the addition of flight foams to the data base provides tools required for engineers to properly design foam packaging when multiple foams would be beneficial. This provides the option to pack hardware for flight then ship hardware to launch facility.</p>